London Census 1891 Transcription Blog



Victorian Occupations

A collection of the occupations or job descriptions of the people living in London in the 1890's.  Most of the descriptions are fairly self explanatory, I'll elaborate on the ones that aren't in due course.


Able Seaman A seaman who reached a standard of skill above that of Ordinary Seaman.
Academic A scholarly person, of a university, etc.
Academician A member of an academy, especially of the Royal Academy of Arts.
Acater, or Achateur supplied food provisions, e.g. a ships chandler
Accipitrary falconer
Accomptant accountant
Accoucheur A man who assisted women in childbirth - Midwife
Accoucheuse A Woman who assisted women in childbirth - Midwife
Accountant A person involved in maintenance and auditing of accounts and financial matters
Accoutre supplier of military clothing and accessories
Accoutrement Maker supplier of military clothing and accessories
Ackerman/Acreman a ploughman, or an oxherder
Actuary One who calculates insurance risks, and kept public accounts of business,
Administrator Someone who directed the affairs of another, or one who settles the estate of a deceased person who died intestate.
Administratrix A female Administrator
Adventurer A person who seeks adventures; a mercenary soldier; one who lives by his wits.
Advertisement Conveyancer Sandwich board man
Advocate A Prosecutor in a court of law in Scotland, also a Solicitor, or Lawyer.
Advocate Deputy A Scottish law officer who could act as public prosecutor.
Advowee One who has an Advowson, normally a nobleman, who had the right to presentation to a vacant benefice, in English ecclesiastical law.
Aeronaut A balloonist or a trapeze artist in the circus or music halls
Affeeror (Assessor) responsible for ensuring that those fined by a Manor Court, actually paid their fines
Agent, broker, factor One who acts or transacts business for another
Agister official of the Royal Forests
Agricultural Labourer A farm servant, shepherd, etc
Agriculturist A person involved with land cultivation or animal husbandry.
Alabasterer worked with alabaster
Alblastere crossbow man
Alchemist A medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn base metals into gold.
Alderman senior councillor one position down from Mayor in the local council
Ale Connor/Founder official who tested quality and measure of ale served in public houses
Ale Draper seller of ale
Ale Taster tested ale and beer for quality
Ale Tunner brewery worker who fills ale casks (tuns) with ale
Ale Wife woman who keeps an alehouse or tavern
All Spice grocer
Almoner Giver of Charity to the needy - one who gave out alms to the poor on behalf of the parish. Also the title of a hospital manager, or one in charge of an Almshouse.
Almsman one who received alms or charity
Alnager (Aulnager)A town official who examined the quality of woollen goods and stamped them with a seal of approval.
Amanuensis A person employed to take dictation or to copy manuscripts - A Secretary or Stenographer.
Amber & Jet Cutter A person who cut and polished amber for jewelry
Amber Cutter A person who cuts amber
Ambler Officer of the Royal Stable who broke in horses
Amen Man Parish clerk
Anchor Smith A person who made anchors
Anchoress A female hermit or religious recluse
Anchorite A male hermit or religious recluse
Angle Iron Smith A person who made angle iron
Anilepman A smallholder, or tenant of the manor
Ankle Beater A young person who helped to drive the cattle to market
Annatto Maker Worked in the manufacture of dyes for paint or printing
Annuitant A person who received an annual income not from working e.g. a pensioner.
Antigropelos Maker A person who made waterproof leggings
Anvil Smith One who made anvils and hammers for blacksmiths
Apiarian Beekeeper
Apothecary (Apotheecary) Prepared and medicines and drugs; pharmacist
Apparitor Official who summoned witnesses in the ecclesiastical courts
Appraiser (Broker) A person who appraised the value of goods.
Apprentice One who was bound to a skilled worker for a specified time to learn a trade - Apprenticeship
Aproneer A shopkeeper
Apronman Mechanic
Aquarius (Ewar) Waterman
Aquavita Seller A person who sold alcohol
Arbiter A person who judged disputes.
Archer A person skilled in using a bow and arrow.
Archiator Physician
Archil Maker Made a violet dye from lichens, used in the textile industry
Archivist A person who kept records of historical value.
Arkwright Skilled craftsman who produced arks; wooden chests or coffers
Armiger Squire who carried the armour of a knight, or one entitled to bear heraldic arms.
Armourer Made suits of armour or plates of armour for buildings or ships etc.
Artificer A soldier mechanic who does repairs
Artificer Skilled or artistic worker or craftsman
Artificial Flower Maker Made and sold artificial flowers
Artisan A skilled tradesman.
Artist in Fireworks A person who prepared fireworks displays.
Ashman Dustman, or Refuse Collector. Also someone who cleans trhe ashes from a boiler.
Ashmanshipman A Sailor who cleaned the ashes from a ships boiler
Assay Master One who determined the amount of gold or silver to go into coins to be minted
Assayer One who determined the proportions of metal in ore.
Assessor (Affeeror)An official in the manorial courts who assessed monetary penalties (fines). They also collected taxes and dues
Assistant Assisted someone else in their trade, often a master
Assurance Agent Sells life assurance policies
Attendant on Sick Nurse
Aulnager (Alnager)A town official who examined the quality of woollen goods and stamped them with a seal of approval.
Auger Maker Made carpenters augers, used for boring holes in wood
Aurifaber Goldsmith
Avenator (Plantifene) A hay and forage merchant.
Avowry The Lord of the Manor
Axle Tree Maker / Turner Made axles for coaches and wagons
Back Washer cleans the wool in the worsted manufacturing industry
Backmaker a Cooper; made backs, vats and tubs
Backster / Baxter baker
Backus Boy or Back'us Boy kitchen servant, abreviation of: "back of the house"
Badger licensed pauper who wore a badge with the letter P on it, or a corn miller or dealer, or an itinerant food trader.
Bag Maker, Canvas / Paper made bags
Bagman travelling salesman
Badgy Fiddler A boy trumpeter in the military.
Bagniokeeper A person in charge of a bath house or brothel.
Bailie, Baillee or Baillie Bailiff
Bailiff officer of the sheriff, a land steward acting on behalf of the landowner
Bairman / Bareman a pauper or beggar
Baker baked bread and pastries
Bal Maiden female mine worker who worked on the surface; Pit Brow Lass
Balancer One who operates the "balance" in a coal mine, which is a slope with a pulley at the top where empty coal tubs pulled full tubs up the slope.
Baler A person who bales hay, and in the mills one who baled wool or cotton goods
Balister archer, or crossbowman
Ballad Monger A person who sold printed ballads(song lyrics) on the street.
Ballast Heaver loaded ballast into the hold of empty ships
Ballast Master A person in charge of loading the ballast into the holds of empty ships.
Baller, or Baller Up measured out the balls of clay for a potter
Band Filer metal worker in the gun making industry
Bandster bound the wheat sheaves after harvest
Bang Beggar An officer of the parish who controlled the length of stay of any stranger to the parish.
Banker dug ditches to allow drainage, placing the surplus earth in banks
Banksman or Browman in charge of the cages at the pit head; aka bank manager
Bar Manager, Inn managed an inn
Barber or Barber Surgeon A men's hairdresser, also a surgeon
Bard a poet or minstrel
Bareman or Bairman beggar or pauper
Barge Mate Naval officer
Bargee or Bargeman worked on or owned and operated a barge
Barilla Manufacturer made barilla; a sodium salt used in the glass and ceramics trade
Barkeeper Tollkeeper
Barker tanner
Barleyman or Bylawman An official of the manorial courts who enforced the courts orders.
Barmaid serves drinks in an inn, public house or tavern
Barman serves drinks in an inn, public house or tavern
Barmaster The arbiter of disputes in the lead mining industry. They were also in charge of the standard measure for the ore.
Barm Brewer A person who made yeast.
Barrel Filer A person employed in the gun manufacturing industry.
Barrowman A person employed in the coal mines to push the barrow from the pit face to the shaft.
Bartoner or Barton in charge of a monastic farm.
Basil Worker worked with sheep and goat skins
Basket Maker made baskets
Basketman made wicker products, also emptied the baskets
of coal from colliers into barges
Bass / Bast Dresser employed in dressing fibre or matting
Bathing Machine Proprietor One who owned and hired the changing huts used by bathers at the seaside in the 18th century.
Batman an officer's servant in the army
Batt Maker A person who made the wadding used in quilt and mattress making.
Battledore Maker made the beaters used on clothes and carpets etc, to remove dust
Bauer farmer
Baven Maker A maker of kindling. A baven (or bavin) is a thin piece of wood or splint, with the end wittled and curled with a knife and used for kindling.
Baxter baker
Bayweaver one who wove bay (a fine woollen fabric also known as baize)
Bead Maker Made beads
Bead Piercer One who drilled the holes in beads
Beadle or Beadel officer of a church or synagogue whose principle duty was to keep order. Also a town cryer
Beadman, Beadsman or Bedesman A person employed to pray for his employer, or the inhabitant of an almshouse, poorhouse or hospital. also, a tenant employed by the manor for a specific service.
Beamer winds the warp on the roller before putting it on the loom in the textile industry
Bearer worked undergrpound carrying the coal to the bottom of the pit shaft
Beater or Fuller washed and thickened the cloth by treading it underwater with fullers earth
Beaver made felt used in hat making
Bed Maker made beds
Bedel or Bedell See Beadle
Bedesman See Beadman.
Bedman sexton
Bedwevere made the webbing for bed frames and also one who wove quilts
Beekeeper or Beemaster A person who kept bees.
Beer or Wine House Keeper usually unlicensed drinking establishments
Beerseller same as above, but more like an off-license
Beershop Keeper one who sells beer, not usually licensed
Beeskep Maker A person who made beehives.
Beetler A person who operated a beetling machine, used in the textile trade for embossing fabric.
Beggar Obvious really!
Belhoste tavern keeper.
Bell Hanger installed bells in churches
Belleyetere Bellfounder
Bellfounder (Billiter) bell maker
Bellman A person employed as a watchman or town crier, or a person who worked for the post office and collected letters for the mail coach by walking the streets and ringing a bell.
Bellowfarmer A person who was responsible for the care and maintenance of the church organ.
Bellows Maker made bellows used for organs or blacksmiths fires
Belly Builder built and fitted the interiors of pianos
Belter See Bellfounder
Bender a person who cut leather
Besom Maker made brooms made of a bundle of birch twigs bound onto a handle
Besomer A person who sweeps with a besom.
Besswarden A person appointed by the parish to look after its animals.
Bicycle Repairer repaired bicycles
Biddy female servant, usually Irish
Bill Poster put up notices and signs
Billiard Marker A person who attends on players at billiards and records the progress of the game.
Billier or Billyman A person who operated a Billy Roller, a machine used in the cotton industry to prepare the cotton for spinning.
Billiter See Bellfounder
Billyman See Billier
Binder bound items, e.g., books, hats etc.
Bird Boy employed to scare away birds from crops
Bird Catcher caught birds for selling
Birds Nest Seller sold birds nests collected from the wild complete with eggs which were then hatched by domestic birds and sold as pets
Black Borderer made black edged stationery for funerals
Blacking Maker made polish for shoes
Blacksmith one who shoes horses
Black Tray Maker made Japanned trays
Bladesmith swordmaker or knife maker
Blaxter or Bleacher bleached cloth or paper pulp
Blemmere A Plumber
Blentonist A water diviner
Blindsman A person employed by the Post Office to deal with incorrectly addressed letters and parcels.
Block Maker engraved the blocks used in the printing industry.
Block Printer printer who used wooden blocks for printing
Blockcutter, or Blocker A person who made wooden blocks used in the hat trade, or a person who laid down the blocks on which a ships keel was laid.
Bloodletter, or Bloodman used leeches for letting blood, thought to be a cure for many ailments
Bloomer or Bloom Smithy A person who produced iron from iron ore.
Blower A glass blower, or a person who operated a "blowing machine" used to clean and separate fibres in the textile trade, or a person who operated the bellows at a blacksmiths.
Blowfeeder A person who fed the fibres into a "blowing machine".
Blue Dyer or Maker A person who worked with blue dye used by calico printers and laundries to stop the white materials from discolouring.
Bluestocking A nickname for a female writer
Bluffer An innkeeper or landlord of a pub
Boarder or Lodger A person who was provided with accommodation and meals.
Boarding Officer inspected ships before entering port
Board Liner One who covers cardboard with plain or ornamental paper by hand, using paste and brush, or one who passes cardboard into a pasting machine.
Boardman truant officer who checked school attendance, or a tenant of manorial land who paid rent by maintaining the manor's table.
Boardwright, or Carpenter made tables and chairs.
Boatman worked on a boat, predominately on rivers and canals, also a boat repairer
Boatswain ship's officer in charge of riggings & ground tackle and looked after the ships stores.
Bobber one who polished metals, or who helped to unload fishing boats
Bobbin Carrier worked in spinning and weaving sections of the mills
Bobbin Turner made the bobbins used in the spinning and weaving industry
Bobby policeman usually of constable rank
Bodeys or Bodice Maker made bodices for women's garments
Bodger craftsman who made wooden chair legs
Boiler Engineer designed boilers
Boiler Maker, or Boilermaker made boilers, or general metalworker
Boiler Plater made rolled iron plate used to make boilers for steam engines etc
Boiler Smith made or repaired boilers
Boll A person who looked after power looms in the weaving industry.
Bolter A person who sifted meal.
Bondager female worker on a farm who was bonded
Bondman, or Apprentice bonded to a master for the purpose of learning a skill or trade.
Bondsman stood bond or surety for another where a bond was required by law
Bone Button Turner made buttons using a lathe
Bone Lace Maker made pillow lace
Bone Mould Turner made the moulds for button manufacturers
Bone Picker collected rags and bones aka Rag and Bone Man
Bonesetter set broken bones
Boniface keeper of an inn
Bonnet Maker made bonnets
Bonnet Shape Maker or Wirer made the wire base which formed the shape of the bonnet
Book Binder bound books
Book Finisher put the finishing touches to books
Book Folder folded paper to make books
Book Gilder decorated books with gold leaf
Bookholder The prompter in the theatre.
Book Keeper looked after the accounts for businesses
Bookman A student.
Book Seller sold books
Boonmaster A surveyor of roads with the responsibilities of maintaining and repairing the road.
Bootbinder A person employed to operate the machines which bound footwear.
Boot Black polisher of shoes
Boot Clicker punched eylet holes using a machine that clicked
Boot Closer worked in the shoe trade stitching together all the parts of a shoe upper
Boot Finisher put the finishing touches to boots
Boot Fitter fitted boots
Boot Heeler put the heels on boots
Boothman A corn merchant
Boot Knifer cut up parts for boots
Boot Laster  
Boot Machiner or Machinist  
Boot Maker made boots
Boot Maker Paste Fitter  
Boot Repairer repaired boots
Boot Rivetter rivetted boots
Boot Seller sold boots
Boot Sewer sewed boots
Borler A person who made cheap coarse clothing.
Borer travelling salesman or peddler
Borsholder officer appointed by the manor or parish, constable. (in Kent)
Boss Maker, Wood made wooden bosses
Botcher tailor or cobbler
Bottiler or Bottler made leather containers for holding liquids eg wine flasks or water bottles
Bottle Boy pharmacists assistant
Bottle Machinist  
Bottle Washer  
Bottler, Cellar worked in a cellar, bottling drinks
Bottom Knocker A sagger makers assistant in the pottery industry.
Bottom Maker A person who moulded the bottoms for saggers in the pottery industry.
Bottomer A person who worked down the pits moving the ore etc to the bottom of the shaft for removal.
Bowdler worked with iron ore
Bower or Bowyer made bows used in archery
Bowker A person who bleached yarn. Also a local term in some parts of Lancashire for a butcher.
Bowler A person who made bowls and dishes. Also a term used for people who made the rounded part of spoons before casting.
Bowlman or Bowlwoman A dealer in crockery.
Bowlminder A person in charge of the vats used for washing raw wool before processing.
Box and packing case maker  
Box Maker  
Bozzler A parish constable.
Brabener A Weaver.
Brachygrapher A shorthand writer
Braider made cord by twisting threads or strips of leather
Brailler made girdles
Brakeman or Brakesman operated the brakes on the winch at the pit head or on trains or trams
Brasiator A brewer of ale
Brasiler A dyer
Brass Cutter A person who made copperplate engravings.
Brass Finisher A person who polished brass goods.
Brass Fitter
Brass Founder A person who cast brass.
Brass Pole Maker
Bratman A rough garment maker.
Brayer A person who ground things up in a mortar.
Brazier A person who made or repaired household items made from brass.
Breach Maker A person who made breaches for guns.
Breakman A bricklayer
Brewer brewed alcoholic beverages
Brewer's Labourer assisted - obvious really
Brewster brewer, or female brewer
Brickburner A brickmaker who used a kiln to make bricks.
Brick maker, dealer Made and sold bricks
Bricklayer or Brickman laid bricks
Bricklayer's Labourer assisted - obvious really
Bridewell Keeper The person in charge of a lock-up or jail.
Bridgeman or Bridger A toll keeper at bridges.
Brightsmith Tin metal worker
Broad Cloth Weaver A person who operated a wide loom.
Broad Cooper A person employed as a go between for the brewery and the innkeepers.
Broderer, Brotherer or Broiderer An Embroiderer
Brogger A wool merchant
Broom Dasher A dealer in brooms
Broom Squire Broom maker
Brotherer Embroiderer
Brouge Maker A shoe maker
Brow Girl female employed at the pit head, Pit Brow Girl
Brownsmith worked with copper or brass
Brush Dresser  
Brush, broom maker, seller  
Buck Washer A laundress
Buckle Tongue Maker made the metal points that go in the holes of a belt
Buckler or Bucklesmith made buckles
Buckram Maker A person who worked with buckram (used for stiffening cloth etc) e.g. belts, lapels and collars.
Buddleboy Maintained the vats used in the lead and tin mines for washing the ore
Bud Stuffer
Builder built houses and other buildings
Builder's Labourer assisted - obvious really
Bullwhacker oxen driver
Bumboat Man A person who met ships at anchor, with goods for passengers and crew to purchase.
Bummaree middle man between the wholesaler and the retailer at the fish markets
Bummer army deserter
Bunter female rag & bone collector
Bureler or Boreler A person who made borel, a woollen cloth with a coarse feel.
Burgess A person who represented a borough at official levels.
Burgomaster A Town Mayor
Burl Cup Bearer
Burler quality inspector for clothing
Burler Mender A skilled finisher of woven fabrics.
Burleyman See Bylawman
Burmaiden chambermaid or lady-in-waiting
Burneman carrier of barm or water for brewers
Burnisher Metal polisher
Burye Man grave digger
Bushel Maker A Cooper, one who makes barrels
Busheler tailor's helper
Busker hair dresser or a street entertainer
Buss Maker maker of guns
Butcher, meat salesman prepared and sold meat for cooking
Butcher's Assistant assisted - obvious really
Butner Button maker
Butter Carver A person who made imprints in butter pats.
Button Burnisher button polisher
Button Clothing  
Button Hole Hand cut and stitched button holes
Button Hole Hand Stitcher cut and stitched button holes
Button Holer or Hole Maker cut and stitched button holes
Butty The person who negotiated mining contracts and supplied the labour.
Bylawman An official of the manorial courts who enforced the courts orders.
Cab Driver drove a cab. Also Cab Man, Cabman, Cabbie or Carman
Cab Man, Cab Nasher, or Groom drove a cab
Cabinet Hawker
Cabinet Maker a highly skilled maker of quality furniture
Cabinet Maker Apprentice apprentice to above
Cabinet maker, upholsterer one who specialised in seating
Cabinet Maker's Labourer assisted - obvious really
Cabinet Polisher often a french polisher
Cable Jointer joined cables
Cad A person employed to feed and water horses at coach stops.
Caddie A boy who carried messages or who ran errands.
Caddy Butcher butcher that dealt in horse meat
Cadger A beggar
Cafender A carpenter
Caffler rag and bone collector
Cainer made walking sticks
Caird A tinker
Calciner burnt bones to make powdered lime
Calender One who listed documents
Calender Worker, Calenderer or Calenderman A person who operated a machine which pressed cloth and paper using two large rollers (calenders).
Calico Printer dyed and colored calico
Cambist An expert in financial exchange, a dealer in bills of exchange.
Cambric Maker A person who made a fine linen or cotton fabric called cambric.
Camerist A lady's maid.
Camister A minister of the cloth
Camlet Merchant A seller of camlet, cloth used to make cloaks & petticoats.
Campaner Bell Maker
Cancellarius Chancellor.
Candle Maker or Candler One who made candles
Candy Man A travelling candy salesman, or a slang name for a bailiff.
Caner or Chair Bottomer made the seats for chairs out of woven cane
Cannaller canal boat worker
Canter A religious speaker who uses cant, or a beggar or vagrant.
Canting Caller An auctioneer
Canvaser or Canvasser One who made canvas
Cap Cutter cut cloth to make caps
Cap Machinist machined caps
Cap Maker made caps
Cap Makers Apprentice apprentice to above
Cap Manufacturer owner of a cap making factory or establishment
Caper or Capper cap maker
Capillaire Maker A person who made orange flavoured syrup.
Capitalist A person who provided private capital or wealth for the production and distribution of goods.
Capsule Maker
Captain in charge of a ship or a group of soldiers and also a term for an overseer or boss
Card Nailer A person who maintained the teeth (nails) on the carding machine used for preparing wool and cotton for weaving.
Carder A person who operated a carding machine used to prepare wool and cotton for weaving by removing the knots and tangles.
Cardmaker A person who made the handheld implement used for carding wool and cotton, or a maker of playing cards.
Cardroomer A person who worked in the carding room of the cotton mills.
Caretaker takes care of another's property
Carman, Carrier or Carter drove a vehicle used to transport goods
Carman Contractor carman contracted to a company
Carman with Mineral Waters carman delivering water
Carman, Railway carman working for the railway
Carman's Assistant assisted - obvious really
Carner A granary keeper
Carnifex A Butcher
Carpentarius A Carpenter
Carpenter & Joiner Skilled woodworker
Carpenter's Labourer assisted - obvious really
Carpet and rug manufacture made carpets and rugs
Carpet Weaver wove carpets
Carriage Painter painted carriages
Carrier A person who drove a vehicle used to transport goods.
Cart Boy junior version of a carman I'd guess
Cart Minder in Market a boy who looked after a stall in a market
Cart Wheeler made cart wheels
Carter A carman, carrier, drayman or wagoner.
Cartographer map maker
Cartomancer A fortune teller who used cards.
Cartridge Maker made cartridges for the firearms industry
Cartwright maker of carts & wagons
Case Maker made cases (often packing cases)
Cashmarie A person who sold fish usually at inland markets.
Caster or Castor A person who made small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar etc.
Castrator A person who castrated farm animals aka a Gelder.
Catagman A cottager
Catchpole or Catchpoll A bailiff or sheriffs officer.
Catechist A teacher of religion.
Cattle Drover drove cattle
Cattle Jobber A person who bought and sold cattle.
Caulker filled up cracks and seams in ships or barrels to make them watertight using tar or oakum-hemp fibre
Causewayer A person who was involved in road repairs.
Cautioner guarantor, one who acts as security for another.
Ceapman See Chapman
Ceiler puts up the ceilings in buildings
Cellar Boy boy who worked in a cellar
Cellarman looked after the beer, wines and spirits in public
houses and warehouses
Cellarman Winestores looked after the beer, wines and spirits in wine stores
Cemmer A person who hand combed the yarn before weaving.
Chaff Cutter made chaff by cutting straw
Chafferer dealer in chaff
Chain Maker made chains
Chair Bodger traveling chair repairman
Chair Maker made chairs
Chaise Driver The driver of a two wheeled, one or two person, light open carriage with a hood that may be let down.
Chaisemaker Carriage maker
Chaloner A dealer in shalloon, a material made in Chalons, or a person who made blankets.
Chamberlain steward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household
Chambermaid female servant attending to bedrooms in houses or inns
Chamber Master A shoemaker that worked from home as an outworker or selling direct.
Chandler grocer, dealer or trader; one who makes or sells candles
Chandler Shop Asst assisted - obvious really
Chanty Man or Shanty Man sailor that led the singing of shanties on board ship
Chapeler made and sold hats
Chapman or Copeman itinerant dealer or peddler of goods, or a keeper of a booth or stall in a market
Char cleaner
Charcoal Burner made charcoal usually in the woods where the trees were cut
Charman See Carrier
Chartmaster A middleman that negotiated mining contracts and supplied the labour.
Charwoman / Char cleaning woman
Chaser An engraver
Chatelaine The mistress of a castle or house.
Chaunter street entertainer who sung ballads
Cheese Factor or Monger, or Cheeseman dealer in cheeses
Chesterman A guard.
Chest Maker made chests
Chiffonier or Chiffonnier wig maker or ragpicker
Childbed Linen Warehouse Keeper or Dealer A person who hired bedlinen for use at child-birth as most children were born at home in the 19th century.
Children's Boot Maker made boots for children
Chimney Sweep or Sweep Swept the soot out of chimneys
China & Glass Dealer sold china and glassware
Chinglor A rooftiler who used wooden shingles.
Chip or Chippy shipwright or carpenter
Chipper's Labourer An assistant to a shipwright or ships carpenter.
Chiropodist A person who treats diseases of the feet & hands.
Chirugion or Chirurgeon An apothecary or surgeon.
Chowder fish monger
Chronologist A person who recorded official events of historical importance.
Cigar Box Maker Cutter cut and made cigar boxes
Cigar Box Paperer lined cigar boxes with paper
Cigar Maker made cigars
Cigar Maker's Apprentice apprentice to above
Cigar Sorter & Bundler sorted and bundled cigars
Cigar Stripper tobacco stripper, part of the cigar making process
Cigarette Cutter cut cigarettes
Cigarette Maker made cigarettes
Cinder Wench female who collected cinders from gas works and sold them door to door
Circuit Rider Traveling Preacher
Cissor A tailor.
Claker A magician or astrologer.
Clapman A man who took a person to prison.
Clark, Clarke or Clericus clerk
Classman An unemployed labourer.
Claviger A Servant
Clay Carrier An assistant to the shot firer in the pits.
Clayman One who worked in the clay pits, preparing the clay for making bricks, or a person who coated the outside of buildings with clay to make them water proof.
Cleaner, Char domestic cleaner
Clericus See Clerk
Clerk general clerical work, also can mean clergyman, cleric
Clerk (C.C.) commercial clerk
Clerk in Holy Orders A Clergyman, cleric or priest.
Clerk (Junior) obvious really
Clerk Secretary secretarial clerk
Cleyman See Clayman
Clicker One who made eyelet holes or uppers in boots using a machine which clicked, or a person in charge of the final stage of layout before printing in the print industry, or the servant of a salesman who stood at the door to invite customers in.
Clipper, Clipper on, or Clipper Off One who attached the coal carts to the rope which was used to drag the carts to and from the coal face in the mines.
Clock Maker made clocks
Clod Hopper plowman or ploughman
Clog Dancer street entertainers - Actors
Clogger A clog maker (wooden shoes).
Cloth Cutter cut cloth
Clothesman or Clothier A person who made or sold clothes.
Cloth Lapper A person who took the cloth from the carding machine and made it ready for the next process.
Cloth Linter or Picker A person who removed unwanted threads and lint from the finished material.
Clotnman See Clothier
Cloth Presser pressed cloth
Clothes Cutter cut clothes
Clothier who made or sold clothes
Clothier's Cutter cut clothes
Clouter A person who made nails. Also another term for a shoemaker.
Clower A person who made nails.
Club Proprietor manager of a club
Coach Maker made coaches
Coach Painter painted coaches
Coachman drove a coach, or acted as a guard, or looked after the horses
Coal Backer A person employed to carry the sacks of coal from the coal barge to the coal wagons.
Coal Burner A person who made charcoal.
Coal Dealer & Greengrocer sold fruit and vegetables as well as coal
Coal Drawer worked in the mines pushing or dragging the coal carts to the bottom of the pit
Coal Heaver A person employed to move coal e.g. from boat to shore or from shore to boat.
Coal Higgler or Coalman A person who sold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house.
Coal merchant/dealer sold coal
Coalmeter A person who measured the coal.
Coal mine service worked in a coal mine
Coal Miner worked in a coal mine
Coal Porter or Coal Bearer carried and delivered coal
Coalheaver, Coal labourer Similar
Coal Runner A person who attended the coal carts underground.
Coal Whipper One employed to unload coal from ships using baskets attached to a simple form of crane.
Coast Surveyor or Waiter A customs officer who watched over the off-loading of goods on the coast.
Cobbler One who mended shoes and boots.
Cobleman A person who used a flat bottomed boat for fishing.
Cockfeeder A person who looked after fighting cocks.
Cocoa Nut Opener opened cocoa nuts
Cocus A cook
Cod Placer A person who put the fire proof containers which held the pottery for firing into the kiln.
Coffee House Manager managed a coffee house
Coffee House/Shop Keeper kept a coffee house or coffee shop
Coffin Maker made coffins
Coffin Maker, Undertaker made coffins and took care of funeral arrangements
Cohen a priest
Coiner A person who worked at the Mint stamping out coins.
Collar Cutter, Shirt cut collars for shirts
Collar Dresser Shirt fitted collars onto shirts
Collar Ironer ironed collars on shirts
Collar Maker made horse collars or shirt collars
Collier coal miner, a coal merchant or one who worked on the coal barges
Colour Man mixed the dyes in the textile trade and also assistant to a house painter
Colourator or Colorator A person who worked with dyes.
Colporteur Peddler of books, sometimes religious books.
Colt A name for unskilled workers. Used to describe women and children working in the framework knitting trade.
Comb Maker A person who made combs either for the textile industry for combing wool etc. or the maker of hair combs.
Comber One who operated a combing machine in the mills.
Combere A person who combs wool.
Commercial Agent another name for an agent
Commercial Clerk another name for a clerk
Commercial Traveller another name for a travelling salesman
Compositor, Printer set the type ready for printing
Conder A person on shore who gave directions to fisherman as to the movements of the shoals of fish (usually from the top of cliffs).
Coney Catcher rabbit catcher
Confectioner maker of sweets
Conner An inspector or tester.
Contriver An inventor, or a schemer or plotter.
Conveyor A grantor or seller.
Cook someone who cooks food
Cook, Domestic someone who cooks food domestically
Cooper or Cuper makes or repairs barrels or other vessels made of staves & hoops, such as casks, tubs, vats, etc
Copeman dealer in goods, or a dishonest dealer in horses.
Coper A horse dealer. Sometimes a dishonest horse dealer.
Copperbeater or Copperbeter A coppersmith, someone who worked with copper or brass.
Copper miner mined copper ore
Coppersmith's Labourer assisted - obvious really
Coppice Keeper A person who looks after a small wood.
Coracle Maker A person who made coracles, small round boats used for inland water fishing.
Cordiner or Cordwainer A shoemaker. Also a person who worked with Cordovan, a special soft leather from Spain.
Cork Cutter A person who worked with cork.
Cork Porter one who carried cork
Corn Chandler sold corn
Corn Cutter A podiatrist.
Cornet The lowest commissioned rank in a cavalry regiment.
Corn Factor A middleman in corn deals.
Corn Meter An official who measured and weighed the corn at market.
Corn Porter carried corn
Correspondent journalist or writer
Corset Maker, Bone made corsets
Corver A person who made baskets used in coal mining known as corves.
Corveysera, Corviner or Corviser See Cordiner
Coster peddlar, hawker, seller of goods on the street, sometimes fruit, but not always
Coster Monger or Costermonger fruit seller, or peddler, hawker, seller of goods on the street
Coster Wife female fruit seller
Coteler or Cotyler A person who made and repaired knives.
Cotiler A cutler
Cottager, Cottar, Cotter or cottier An agricultural labourer who lived in a cottage on the landowners farm.
Cotton Feeder A person employed in the cotton mills to feed the cotton into the loom.
Cotton Winder wound cotton
Coucher A person employed in the paper making trade.
Countour A person who collected rates.
Couper A dealer, Buys and sells, usually cattle and horses.
Couple Beggar An itinerant priest who performed marriages without licence or banns.
Coupler A person employed in the coal mines coupling the coal tubs together.
Couranteer A journalist.
Court Factor A person who bought and sold courts (small carts).
Court Roller A person in charge of the court rolls and records.
Court Toolmaker A manufacturer of tools used to produce carts known as courts.
Courtier The owner and driver of a horse and cart known as a court.
Cow Boy, Milk milked cows
Cowherd A person who looked after cows.
Cowkeeper, Cowman or milkseller kept one or more cows and sold the milk from the front door, or from door to door
Cow Leech An animal doctor.
Coxwain ship or boat helmsman, or a member of the crew that gave the steering instructions to the helmsman
Crayman driver of a cart carrying heavy loads.
Creaque Hand
Crier law court officer, auctioneer, town announcer
Crimper A member of navy press gang.
Crocker Potter
Crofter tenant of a small piece of land
Cropper tenant who is paid with a share of the crop, or a skilled worker in the Yorkshire weaving trade who sheared the nap from cloth.
Crowner A Coroner
Cuhreur or Cunreur A currier.
Culler A gelder of male animals.
Curate - Clergy
Curer cures tobacco or pork
Curretter A Broker.
Currier One who dresses the coat of a horse with a curry comb, or one who cures or tans hides
Customer or Customs Officer A customs tax collector.
Cutler knife seller or sharpener
Cutter One who cuts things
Daguerreotype Artist An early name for a photographer (from the Daguerreotype method).
Dairyman worker or owner of a dairy farm or seller of dairy products
Damster A builder of dams for logging purposes.
Danter female overseer in the winding rooms of a silk mill
Dareman A Dairyman
Dataller, Dateler, Daytaleman or Day Labourer See Day Man
Daunsel A gentleman in waiting; groom; squire
Day Man A casual worker, usually employed and paid by the day, the term was used in many different industries and trades.
Dealer in Building Material Obvious really
Dealer in Books ditto
Dealer in Dogs ditto
Dealer in Handcarts ditto
Dealer in second hand clothes ditto
Dealer, Shop Shopkeeper, all kinds
Deathsman An Executioner.
Decimer A person elected by the householders in a street to act as their representative at the borough's Court Leet.
Decorator decorates houses
Decoyman A person employed to decoy the wild fowl, animals, etc, into a trap or within shooting range.
Decretist A person knowledgeable in decrees, decretals.
Deemer, Deemster, Demster or Dempster A judge, often in the Channel Isles or Isle of Man.
Delivery Clerk clerk in charge of delivery
Delver dug ditches
Dentist fixed teeth
Departer A refiner of precious metals.
Deputy safety officer for the pit crew in the mining industry.
Deputy, Lodging House made sure that everyone paid for their bed
Derrickman A person who worked on an oil well handling the tubes and rods used in drilling.
Devil printer's errand boy
Deviller operated the devil, a machine that tore rags used in the textile industry
Dexter A dyer
Dey Wife female dairy worker
Diamond Polisher polished diamonds
Digger A person who worked at the coal face in a mine, or a day labourer in a stone or slate quarry.
Dikeman A hedger or ditcher.
Dipper worked in the pottery trade and was responsible for the glazing of items
Dish Thrower, or Disher A person who made bowls and dishes from clay.
Dish Turner A person who made wooden bowls or dishes.
Distiller A person who made alcoholic beverages by distillation - spirits. Also called a Rectifier.
Distributor A parish official attached to the workhouse or poorhouse who looked after the secular needs of the poor.
Diviner See Dowser
Dock Cooper a cooper who worked on the dock
Docker Stevedore, dock worker who loads & unloads cargo
Dock Laborer american spelling of general labourer who worked on the dock
Dock Labourer general labourer who worked on the dock
Dock Master in charge of a dockyard
Dock Porter a porter who worked on the dock
Dock Walloper A dock worker, or Longshoreman.
Doctor's Lad, Porter doctor's assistant
Dog Breaker A person who trained dogs.
Dog Killer A person employed by the parish to kill any dogs found wandering around loose.
Dog Leech A veterinarian.
Dog Muzzle Maker made dog muzzles
Dog Whipper When foxes were hunted for bounty the tail of the fox was nailed to the church door as proof of capture. The Dog Whipper was employed to deal with the dogs which disrupted the church service, attracted by the tails.
Domesman Nickname for a judge.
Domestic, Dom or Domestic Servant household servant
Donkey Boy or Man The driver of a carriage for passengers.
Door Keeper guard, janitor, or porter
Dorcas A seamstress.
Doubler A person who operated a machine used to twist together strands of cotton, wool or other fibre.
Dowser or Diviner Someone who claims to be able to find water underground, using a forked rod or witching stick made of hazel.
Dozener See Decimer.
Dragman A fisherman who fished by dragging a net along the bottom of the water.
Dragoman A Turkish or Arabic interpreter.
Dragoon A cavalryman.
Drainer A person who made drains.
Draper dealer in fabrics and sewing needs, cotton, linen and woollen, or a dealer in dry goods
Draper Come Traveller travelling draper
Draper's Assistant assisted - obvious really
Draper's Porter carried stuff for a draper
Drapery Painter One whose painting skills were not that good, they usually finished paintings for the artists by painting on the clothes of the subject, hence Drapery Painter.
Draughtsman drew technical drawings
Draughtsman Engineer got a degree and drew technical drawings
Drawboy A weavers assistant in the shawl making mills. They sat atop the looms and lifted the heavy warps.
Drawer A person who made wire by drawing the metal through a die, or a person who raised the coal up the shaft to the surface in a mine.
Dray Man or Drayman One who drives a long strong 4 wheeled cart called a dray, without fixed sides for carrying loads, usually beer kegs
Dredgerman A person who went on the River Thames in a boat to collect the debris that had fallen overboard from other vessels which they would then sell. Also an Oyster Fishermen.
Dress Fitter fitted dresses
Dress Maker made dresses
Dresser A surgeon's assistant in a hospital, or a person who prepared things, e.g. clothing for a noble person, food, etc. Also a person who operated a machine that prepared threads in the textile industry.
Dressing Gown Maker made dressing gowns
Dressing Machine Maker A person who made sewing machines.
Dressmaker A person who made clothing, particularly dresses.
Drift Maker A person who made drift nets, used in the fishing industry.
Dripping Man dealer in dripping (the fat collected during the cooking of meats)
Driver A slave overseer.
Drover One who drove cattle, sheep to market, also a dealer in cattle.
Drugger A Chemist or Pharmacist.
Druggist prepared drugs for sale
Drug Grinder ground drugs to a powder
Drum Battledore Maker A person who made galvanised metal drums fitted with paddles used as mechanical agitators in washing machines (battledore is the name of the bat shaped paddles).
Drum Maker made drums
Drummer Traveling salesman
Dry Salter A dealer in pickles, dried meats, salted meats, and sauces. A dealer in dyes and colours used in the dying trade. Also a person who made or dealt in salt.
Dry Stone Waller A person who built stone walls usually using the stones removed from the fields as building materials. The art was in not using any cement or mortar. Dry Stane Dyker - Scottish term for the same thing.
Dubbere A cloth dubber, someone who raises the nap of the cloth.
Dudder A maker of coarse cloaks.
Duffer peddler of cheap goods
Dustman or Dustbin Man collected domestic refuse, a garbage collector
Dyer employed in the textile mills to color fabric prior to weaving
Dykeman or Dysshere A hedger or ditcher.
Dyker Scottish term for a stonemason.
Ealdorman An official of the shire courts who acted as the King's deputy taking payment from the profits of the court.
Earer A ploughman.
Earthenware manufacture made earthenware products; plantpots etc
Earth Stopper A person employed to close up the entrances of a fox's earth before the hunt began.
East India Man A person employed by the East India Company, on a commercial or military basis.
Ebonite Turner A person who worked with ebonite or vulcanite, making combs or ornaments.
Edge Tool Maker Blacksmith who made knives and agricultural implements such as scythes.
Egg Dealer, Egg Factor or Eggler egg or poultry dealer
Elephants Teeth Dealer A person who dealt in ivory ornaments etc.
Electrician did electical work
Electro typer type setter for a printer
Ellerman, Elliman or Oilman One who sold oil used for lamps
Elymaker An oilmaker
Embosser moulded or carved designs that were raised above the surface of the material
Embroider makes embroidery
Empresario A land broker, settlement scheme promoter, showman.
Endholdernn An inn keeper
Engine and machine maker makes engines and machines
Engine driver, stoker drives an engine and stokes the boiler
Engineer A person who designed roads, bridges, or machinery. Also a person who drove or serviced any machinery e.g. engine drivers.
Engineer's Apprentice apprentice to above
Engine Fitter fitted engines
Engineman employed at a mine to be in charge of the machinery in the engine house used to crush and transport the ore.
Engine Tenter A person who operated the machine which stretched the cloth whilst drying in a woollen mill.
Engine Turner An engraver who produced overlaping geometric patterns on fancy goods. Engine turning was commonly seen on ladies powder compacts and other such items.
Engraver One who cuts or carves designs or lettering in metal or stone etc.
Enumerator collected and recorded the information for the census from the householder
Envelope Cutter cut envelopes
Envelope Folder folded envelopes
Envelope Stamper Stamped envelopes.
Equerry An officer of the Royal household usually responsible for the royal horses.
Eremite A Hermit.
Erite An heretic.
Errand Boy Obvious really
Errand Girl ditto
Esquire attended a knight, carried his shield among other things. Later it became a title for a man of standing in society, by birth, position or education.
Estafette A mounted courier.
Etcher A person who cuts or carves designs or lettering in metal or stone etc. A person who made the plates for printing patterns on cloth or banknotes. An Engraver.
Ewe Herd A shepherd.
Exchequer revenue collector
Exciseman excise tax collector
Executrix A female Executor.
Export Clothier  
Expressman One who delivered mail
Eyer or Holer one who made eyes in needles used for sewing
Faber artisan or workman, a smith.
Fabricator A maker
Factor An agent employed by merchants to transact business of buying and selling
Factor Agent Merchant for commission or factor, one who transacts business for another (usually absent).
Factory Girl  
Factory Labourer  
Factory Lad  
Fagetter made up faggots into bundles, seller of firewood
Faker Photographic assistant who added colour to photographs by hand before colour film was available.
Falconer or Falkner breeds, trains, or hunts with hawks
Fancy Basket Liner  
Fancy Box Maker  
Fancy Man pimp
Fancy Pearl Worker worked in mother-of-pearl making buttons or fancy goods
Fancy Salesman  
Fancy Trimmer  
Fancy Woman prostitute
Fanner A grain winnower.
Fanwright A maker and repairer of fans or winnowing baskets.
Farandman<.td> A stranger or traveller, especially a travelling merchant.
Farm bailiff
Farmer often descendant of the gentry; usually having servants and farm workers, or a tax-collector or bailiff.
Farmer, grazier A farmer who pastures and raises cattle.
Farrier A horse doctor, or a blacksmith, one who shoes horses
Farrier's Assistant Obvious really/td>
Faulkner A Falconer.
Fawkner trainer of falcons
Fear Nothing Maker A weaver of a special kind of thick woollen cloth known as fear-nought, used for protective clothing and lining portholes, walls, and doors of powder magazines on board ships.
Feather Beater cleanser of feathers
Feather Curler curled feathers to prepare them for use in hat making etc
Feather Dresser cleaned and prepared feathers for sale
Feather Man dealer in feathers and plumes
Feather Wife woman who prepared feathers for use
Feeder A herdsman.
Fell monger One who removes hair or wool from hides in preparation for leather making, or a dealer in hides & sheepskins.
Feller A woodcutter, or a person who laid or felled seams in textiles.
Felter worker in the hatting industry
Fence Viewer A person who inspects farmer's fences.
Feroner An ironmonger.
Ferreter Dealer in or manufacturer of ferret, or silk tape.
Ferur or Ferator A farrier or blacksmith.
Festitian Doctor or Physician
Fettler cleaned the machinery in woollen mills, removing accumulated fibres, grease, etc, or one who sharpened the fustian cutters knives, or a needlemaker who filed the needle to a point.
Feuar A holder of lands granted for services
Fever A blacksmith.
Fewster A maker of saddletrees.
Fewterer The keeper of hounds, for hunting or coursing. A keeper of greyhounds.
Feydur Beater A feather beater.
Field Master See Hayward
File Cutter - Maker a maker of files, involved the cutting of grooves on the file surface
Filler A person who filled bobbins in mills.
Fine Drawer One who is employed in tailoring to repair tears in the cloth. Invisible mending.
Finisher operated machine giving final touches to a manufactured article in various trades
Finisher's Assistant assisted - obvious really
Firebeater A person who tended the boilers that powered the machinery in a cotton mill.
First Hand silk weaver who had his own loom (an outworker)
Fiscere A fisherman.
Fish Curer cured fish
Fisher or Fishdryver A victualler
Fish Fag female fish monger
Fish Hawker sold fish on the street
Fish Monger sold fish from a shop
Fish Porter carried and delivered boxes of fish in the fish market
Fisherman/woman caught fish
Fitter A common term for a person who assembled several portions of machinery together, or a coal broker.
Flasher A specialist process worker in the glass industry.
Flatman Navigated a broad flat-bottomed boat used for transport, especially in shallow waters. Common in the salt trade.
Flauner A confectioner.
Flaxdresser prepared flax prior to spinning
Flesher A butcher or a person who worked in a tannery, or a nickname for a pimp.
Fleshewer A butcher.
Fleshmonger butcher or one who worked in a tannery
Fletcher One who made bows and arrows; arrowsmith
Floater A vagrant.
Floatman See Flatman.
Florist sold flowers from a shop
Flower An archer (Flo-arrow).
Flower Hawker/Seller/Coster sold flowers on the street
Flower Maker made flowers (artificial)
Flower Worker worked in the flower trade; looking after growing flowers
Flusherman cleaned out water mains
Flycoachman or Flyman driver of one-horse carriage hired by the day
Flying Stationer street broadsheet seller
Flyman Driver of a light vehicle hired out for carriage of passengers, or a theatre stage hand.
Fogger Petty chapman, carrying wares from village to village, or a middleman in the nail and chain trade, or an agricultural worker responsible for feeding the cattle, or a low class lawyer (Pettifogger).
Foister or Foisterer A joiner.
Foot Boy A servant or attendant in livery.
Foot Maiden female servant
Foot Man servant who ran errands, or one who opened the doors for passengers
Foot Pad thief or robber
Foot Post letter carrier or messenger who travelled on foot
Foot Straightener In watchmaking, a person who assembled watch and clock dials.
Foreman a person in charge in almost any industry
Forestarius A forester.
Forester A game warden or forest ranger.
Forgeman, Smith or Forger blacksmith, worker at a forge
Forkner A falconer.
Fossetmaker who made faucets for ale-casks, etc
Fower A street cleaner, sweeper.
Fowler or Fugler keeper or catcher of birds
Framar A farmer
Frame Mounter mounted frames
Frame Spinner A worker on a loom.
Framer A person who made frames for houses.
Framework Knitter An operator of a machine which made hosiery. Originally a hand loom was used. Often abbreviated to FWK.
Freedman one released from slavery
Freeholder one who holds land by fee simple. In colonial times, a freeholder had the right to vote and hold public office.
Freeman one who held the full rights of citizenship, such as voting and engaging in business, and a man who had served his apprenticeship and who could then work at his trade in his own right.
Freemason stonecutter
French Polisher polished quality wooden furniture using French polish, wax or special lacquer
Frereman servant of the Friars.
Freser A maker of frieze, a rough plaster.
Freshwater Man A sailor who sailed boat on fresh water only or in the coastal trade.
Fringemaker A person who made fringes, ornamental borders of cloth.
Fripperer A buyer & seller of old clothes.
Friseur A hairdresser.
Frobisher or Furbisher remover of rust, a polisher of metal, eg. armour
Fruiterer or Fruit Salesman sold fruit from a shop
Fruitestere A female fruit seller.
Fruit Hawker sold fruit on the street
Fruit Sorter sorted fruit
Fulker A pawnbroker
Fuller fulls cloth; shrinks and thickens woollen cloth using fullers earth by moistening, heating, and pressing; one who cleans and finishes cloth
Funambulist A tightrope walker.
Funeral Coachman Drove a funeral coach or hearse.
Funeral Wreath Maker Made wreaths for funerals
Fur Cape Maker Made fur capes
Fur Cutter Cut fur
Fur Dealer Bought and sold fur and articles made from fur.
Fur Dresser Dressed fur
Fur Machinist Machined fur
Fur Puller Pulled fur
Fur Sewer Sewed fur
Fur Trimmer Trimmed fur
Furbisher, Furber or Furbour armor polisher, see Frobisher
Furner baker
Furnisher Dealt in furniture
Furniture Labourer A labourer in the furniture industry
Furrier seller, dresser or maker of furs
Fustian Weaver A maker of corduroy.
Fuyster See Foister.
Gabeler A tax collector.
Gaffer foreman of a work crew, or an elderly rustic, an old man.
Gaffman a bailiff
Gager A tax collector of liquor taxes.
Galvaniser iron worker who coated metal with zinc, to inhibit rust
Gamekeeper looked after the grounds and protected the game against poachers on a country estate
Gamester gambler or prostitute
Ganger or Gangsman An overseer or foreman
Ganneker A tavern keeper.
Gaoler A keeper of the gaol, a jailer
Garcifer or Garcio A groom, or attendant.
Gardener looked after gardens
Garlekmonger or Garlicmonger A dealer in garlic.
Garthman A yardman or herdsman, or one responsible for the upkeep of a garth, a dam built in a river to catch fish.
Gas Fitter & Plumber fitted gas appliances; gas lamps initially, and lead piping
Gas Stoker stoked the fire in a gas works
Gater A watchman.
Gatherer A glassworker who inserted the blow iron into the molten glass ready for the glass blower.
Gatherer's Boy A person who held a shovel to shield the gatherer's face from the heat of a fire or furnace.
A goat keeper.
Gauger A customs official who measured the capacity of imported barrels of liquor in order to calculate the customs duty.
Gaunter A glover
Gaveller A Usurer, or in the Forest of Dean, an officer of the Crown who granted gales or the right to work a mine, or in Suffolk a harvest worker, usually female.
Gelder A castrator of animals, usually horses.
General Dealer, Shop a shop that sold almost everything. General was often abreviated to Gen, or Gen'l.
General Laborer American spelling of general labourer
General Labourer general labourer, usually lifting and carrying etc
General Servant general servant, usually domestic
Gentleman a member of the gentry, a descendant from an aristocratic family whose income came from the rental of his land.
Geometer A person skilled in geometry.
Gerund Grinder A nickname for a latin instructor.
Gilder applies gold leaf
Gimler A machinist involved in making a gimp, a kind of card.
Ginerr A joiner.
Ginour or Gynour An engineer.
Girdler A leather worker who made girdles and belts, mainly in the army.
Girthhoxter See Girthweaver.
Glass Blower maker of glass items
Glass Coachman A driver of a two-horse carriage hired out for the day.
Glassman A seller of glassware.
Glassewryght, or Glasswright maker and mender of glassware.
Glazier glass cutter or window glassman
Glove Finisher finished gloves
Glover One that makes or sells gloves
Goat Carriage Man A driver of small passenger carriage.
Gobar A jobber.
Gold Beater Someone who beats gold to shape it into something.
Gold Embroider Someone who embroiders in gold thread.
Goldsmith maker of gold articles. Also a nickname for a banker.
Goldsmith, silversmith Maker of gold and silver articles.
Goodman a solid member of the community who ranked above a free-man but below a gentleman on the social scale.
Goose Herd A person who keeps or tends geese.
Gorzeman A person who sells gorse or broom.
Grace Wife A midwife.
Graffer A notary or scrivener.
Granger farmer
Graver An engraver, a carver or sculptor, or a dockside worker who cleaned ships bottoms by burning and tarring.
Grazier pastures and raises cattle
Greave or Grieve A bailiff, foreman or sheriff.
Grecher A grocer.
Green Grocer Someone who sells fruit and vegetables.
Green Smith Someone who works with copper & latten
Greenwich Barber A retailer of sand collected from the Greenwich pits.
Griffin A European newly arrived in India, and unaccustomed to Indian ways; a novice, a newcomer, a greenhorn.
Grimbribber A lawyer.
Grinder One who operated a grinding machine in various trades, or a worker who maintained a carding machine in the textile industry, or a private tutor (slang).
Grindery Dealer dealer in ground stuff; spices etc
Grocer short for green groce
Grocer's Manager manager of a green grocer's shop
Grocery & General Dealer sold almost everything including fruit and veg
Groom looked after horses
Groover A miner.
Groundsel & Chickweed Seller A street seller of common weeds, used to feed pet song-birds.
Guardian Appointed by the court, someone who cares for the property and rights of a minor or someone incapable of handling his or her own affairs.
Guilderer A maker of gold or silver coins
Guinea Pig An unattached or roving person whose fee was usually a guinea (slang).
Gummer A person who improved old saws by deepening the cuts.
Gunsmith, Gun manfacturer made guns
Gynour or Ginour An engineer.
Gyp college servant especially one attending undergraduates
Haberdasher Dealer in ribbons, needles, pins, or a dealer in men's clothing; hats, shirts, ties, collars, etc.
Hacker Maker of hoes, axes, and other cutting tools. or a woodcutter.
Hackler A person in the linen trade, who separated the coarse part of flax or hemp with a hackle, an instrument with teeth.
Hackman or Hackmann One who drove a carriage
Hackney Man renter of horses & carriages
Hair Dresser cut and styled hair
Hair Dresser & Wig Maker ditto & made wigs
Hair Dresser's Apprentice apprentice to above
Hairman Hairweaver.
Hair Seating & Curled Hair Merchant A dealer in horse-hair stuffing used in upholstery.
Hairweaver A weaver of cloth composed wholly or partly of horsehair.
Halbert Carrier A soldier or halberdier, armed with a halberd, a combination spear and battleaxe. A ceremonial officer.
Halter made halters for horses
Hamberghmaker or Hamberow A horse collar maker.
Hammerman (Smith) hammerer, a smith
Hanchman horseman or groom
Hand assistant
Handseller street vendor
Handwoman midwife or female attendant
Handy Man odd job man - very handy, lives just around the corner
Hansard weapon maker or seller
Harlot A Vagabond, beggar, rogue, or a loose woman
Harmer Beck A Constable.
Harness Maker made horses harnesses
Harper A person who plays the harp; a musician.
Hat & Cap Hand assistant cap and hat maker
Hat & Cap Manufacturer owner of a hat and cap factory
Hat Furrer added fur to hats
Hatcheler One who cleaned, combed or carded flax
Hatter maker of or dealer in hats
Hawker, Huckster or Coster peddler - sells things on the streets, matches,laces etc
Haymonger dealer in hay
Hayward Keeper of fences, or one tending a hayfield
Headborough A constable.
Headsman A nickname for an executioner.
Headswoman A midwife.
Heald Knitter An operator of a textile machine which produced a jersey type of fabric as opposed to woven fabric.
Hebrew Book seller Obvious really
Hebrew Reader Master taught students to read hebrew
Hebrew Teacher ditto
Hebrew Writer wrote hebrew
Heck Maker A maker of a part of a spinning machine by which the yarn is guided to the reels.
Heckler See Hackler.
Hedge Looker supervised repair of fences and hedges. See Hayward
Hedger hedge trimmer
Heel Maker or Heelmaker made boot and shoe heels
Hellier A slater or tiler of roofs.
Helper-Up A young boy employed in pits to help other workers.
Hemp Heckler A flax dresser. See hackler.
Henchman A horseman or groom, or a Squire, or page of honour.
Hensman A horseman or groom.
Henter A thief.
Herd A shepherd or herdsman
Hetheleder One who provided heather for fuel.
Hewer A miner, or face worker, who cut coal, stone, etc, in a mine
Higgler A person who haggles or bargains, an itinerant peddler
High Sheriff the highest-ranking sheriff, as opposed to deputy sheriffs.
Highwayman A robber who preys on public roads.
Hillier A roof tiler, or slater.
Hind A skilled farm labourer, or a household or domestic servant.
Hinxman See Henchman.
Hired Man A gardener, farmhand, or stableman.
Hobbler A person who was employed to tow a boat on the rivers or canals.
Hod A bricklayer's labourer.
Hodsman mason's assistant
Hoggard A pig drover.
Hog Reeve One who rounded up the stray hogs on city streets
Holloware Worker Pottery worker who made ornaments, teapots, etc, or one involved in the production of tin trunks, boxes, etc.
Holster A groomer of horses
Hoofer A dancer.
Hooker A reaper, or a worker in textile industry who operated a machine which laid fabric flat in uniform folds
Hooper One who made hoops for casks and barrels
Horner A worker in horn making spoons, combs, or musical horns.
Horse Capper dealer in worthless horses
Horse Coper A horse dealer.
Horse Courser owner of race horses
Horse Driver Drove horses.
Horse Hair Comber Brush One who made horse brushes and curry combs
Horse Hair Curler dressed horse hair which was used extensively in the upholstery trade
Horse Hair Dealer Dealer in horse hair
Horse Hair Dresser Dresses horse hair
Horse Hair Dresser, Brush
Horse Keeper Kept horses
Horse Keeper, Groom
Horse Knave A groom.
Horse Leech A horse-doctor, Farrier, or Veterinarian.
Horse Marine Man-handled barges on canals when horses could not be used.
Horsler or Horstler A groom, or a horse servant at an inn.
Hose (stocking) manufacturer Manufacturer of stockings
Hosier retailer of stockings, socks, gloves, nightcaps
Hosteller An innkeeper.
Hostler or Ostler Horse groomer. See Horsler
Hotpresser A worker who operated a machine to press the material between glazed boards and hot metal plates to obtain a smooth and shiny surface in paper or textile industries.
House Agent
House Boy, Dom
House Decorator
House Joiner house framer
House Keeper or Housekeeper A domestic servant
House Maid
House Painter
House proprietor
House Wright house builder
Howdy Wife A midwife.
Hoyman A person who carried goods and passengers by water in a hoy, a small coastal vessel.
Huckster Sells small wares, or a street seller of ale.
Huissher An usher, or door attendant.
Hurdleman or Hurdler Someone who made hedges, of wattled framework fencing.
Hurriers Girls aged 5-18 who were employed as coal-drawers in the coal mining industry.
Husbandman A farmer who cultivated the land, tenant farmer
Hush Shop Keeper brewed beer and sold it without a license (usually as a side line)
Ice Cream Vendor One who sells ice cream
Iceman A seller or deliverer of ice
Idleman A gentleman of leisure
Indentured Servant Someone who has committed to working for someone for a fixed number of years.
Infirmarian Someone in charge of an infirmary
Innkeeper one who runs an inn
Insurance Collector collected insurance premiums from customers
Intelligencer A spy.
Intendent A director of a public or government business.
Interfactor A murderer.
Ironer ironed clothing
Iron Founder Someone who works in an iron foundry, one who casts, or founds iron.
Iron Master The owner or manager of a foundry
Iron miner One who mined iron ore
Iron Monger or Ironmonger dealer in hardware made of iron
Ironmonger, hardware dealer dealer in hardware made of iron and other products
Iron Smith A blacksmith, a worker in iron.
Ivory Worker A person who makes combs, boxes, billard balls, buttons, and piano keys
Jack young male assistant, sailor, or lumberjack
Jack-Frame Tenter A worker who operated a jack-frame, used for giving a twist to the thread in the Cotton industry.
Jack Smith maker of lifting machinery, etc.
Jagger Fish peddler, carrier, or carter.
Jakes Farmer A person who emptied cesspools.
Jam Maker Someone who makes jam.
Japanner Someone who varnishes wooden furniture with a hard brilliant coat of hard lacquer. Invented in Japan.
Jerquer Custom house officer who searched ships.
Jersey Comber A worker in woollen manufacture. (wool which has been combed but not spun into yarn is called Jersey).
Jeweller made jewelry
Jeweller & Watchmaker Someone who made jewelry and watches
Jobber A buyer in quantity to sell to others, a pieceworker
Jobbing Gardener One employed on a casual basis.
Job Coachman The driver of coach hired out for long periods to nobility or gentry.
Jobling Gardener One employed on a casual basis. May be a misspelling, see Jobbing Gardener.
Jobmaster A person who supplied carriages, horses and drivers for hire.
Joiner A skilled carpenter. One who works with wood. See also Joyner.
Jongleur A travelling minstrel.
Jorman A journeyman.
Journeyman one who served his apprenticeship and mastered his craft - time served, and no longer had to work for someone else (though they often still did).
Journeyman Baker time served baker - in other words, fully qualified
Journeyman Shoemaker ditto, shoemaker
Journeyman Sweep ditto, sweep
Jouster A fish monger, usually a female hawker of fish, travelling from town to town.
Joyner A skilled carpenter. See Joiner
Junior Clerk a junior anything is usually one learning the job
Justiciar The head of the royal judicial system and the king's viceroy when absent from the country.
Kedger A fisherman
Keeker Colliery official who checked quantity and quality of coal output. A weighman.
Keeler A bargeman who sailed a flat bottomed boat known as a keel.
Keelman A Keeler
Keller A keeper of salt.
Kellogg A slaughterman.
Kempster A Wool comber
Kepegest An innkeeper.
Kiddier A skinner or dealer in young goats
Kilner limeburner, in charge of a kiln
Kisser Someone who made cuishes and high armour.
Kitchen Assistant assisted - obvious really
Knacker harness maker or saddler, also the buyer of old horses and dead animals
Knappers Someone who shaped and dressed flints into the size shape required for use in flintlock guns for the British Army.
Kneller A chimney sweep who went from door to door looking for business.
Knight This is the English term for a European social position. It is no longer the pricipal duty to fight as and lead heavy cavalry as was the case in the late middle ages. But the ideals to which a knight may aspire are still largely prowess, loyalty, generosity and courtesy.
Knocker-Up A person employed to wake up workers in northern mills and factorys on early shifts, going from house to house using a long pole to knock on bedroom windows.
Knockknobbler A dog catcher.
Knoller The toller of bells
Knuller A chimney sweep who went from door to door looking for business.
Laborer see general laborer
Labourer see general labourer
Lace Drawer A child employed in lace work, drawing out threads.
Laceman A dealer in lace.
Lace Master or Mistress Someone who employed workers in factories or in their homes for the production of lace
Lace Runner Someone who embroidered patterns on lace.
Lace Warehouseman employed in a lace warehouse
Lacewoman A lady's maid.
Ladies Jacket Maker Someone who made lady's jackets.
Lady's Tailor Someone who specialised in tailoring for ladies.
Lagger A sailor.
Lagraetman A constable.
Lamp Maker
Lamplighter Gas
Land proprietor Manages land.
Landsman A seaman on his first voyage.
Land Waiter A customs officer whose job was to wait or attend on landed goods.
Lapidary Someone who cuts, polishes or engraves precious or semi-precious stones.
Lardner The keeper of the cupboard, or an official in charge of pig food.
Laster A shoe maker, one who uses a last, a cobbler.
Lath Render or Renderer A plasterer's assistant, someone who puts the first coat of plaster onto laths on walls and ceiling.
Latouner Someone who works with latten, a brass-like metal alloy.
Lattener A brass worker. See Latouner.
Launderer washer
Launderess or Laundress A washer woman.
Laundry Woman A washer woman
Lavender A washer woman (from French laver - to wash).
Law clerk a clerk who works for a court or a solicitor
Layer Someone who works in a paper mill.
Lead Factory Hand
Lead miner
Leaf Stripper someone who strips leaves from tobacco plants
Learner or Learning anyone learning a trade which is not an apprenticeship
Leather Cutter cuts leather
Leather Drawer draws leather
Leather Dresser dresses leather
Leather Seller sells leather
Leather Sewer sews leather
Leavelooker Someone who examined food on sale at market.
Lederer A leather maker
Leech A physician. Also known as a Sawbones.
Legerdemainist A magician.
Legger A canal boatman who had to leg the barges through tunnels as they were not big enough for horses to get through. See Horse Marine.
Leightonward A gardener.
Lemon Dealer
Letter Carrier A postman
Letterpress Printer A printer using the letterpress printing method.
Licensed Messenger A messenger
Licensed Reader, Preach A preacher
Licensed Victualler one who is licensed to sell alcoholic beverages
Life Buoy Maker
Lighterman A worker on a flat-bottomed boat, a lighter.
Limeburner A maker of lime.
Limner A draughtsman or artist. An illustrator or painter.
Linen, flax manufacturer A manufacturer of linen.
Linener A shirtmaker, or linen draper.
Liner or Lyner A flax dresser.
Linkerboy or Man Someone who carried a link or torch to guide people through the streets at night for a small fee, or a general manservant.
Lint Maker Someone who made lint.
Lister or Litster Someone who dyed textiles.
Litho Printer A printer who used the litho method.
Litterman A horse groom.
Liveryman Cared for horses for a fee
Loadsman A ship's pilot.
Loblolly Boy An errand boy, or a surgeon's assistant on a ship.
Lock Keeper Someone who oversees the operation of canal locks.
Lodge Porter Someone who looks after a lodging house.
Lodging House Keeper Someone in charge of a lodging house.
Lodging House Manager Someone in charge of or owner of a lodging house.
Lodger Someone who sleeps in a lodging house. See Boarder.
Log Reader
Log Wood Grinder Someone who prepared a dye made from logwood, used in the textile industry.
Lokeer A locksmith
Longshoreman A stevedore
Long Song Seller A street seller who sold songsheets of popular music printed on paper about a yard long.
Looking Glass Fitter Someone who fits mirrors.
Looking Glass Gilder Someone who gilds the frames of mirrors.
Looking Glass Maker Someone who makes mirrors.
Lorimer, Loriner or Lormer A maker of bridles, spits, and other metal parts for the harnesses of horses. Also a maker of small ironware, or a worker in wrought iron. See Spurrier
Lorner Maker of horse gear
Lotseller A street seller.
Lum Swooper A chimney sweep.
Lumper A dock labourer who loaded and unloaded timber from ships, who was employed by a Master Lumper. Also a fine grained saltmaker, from the practice of moulding salt into lumps.
Lungs An alchemist's servant whose duty was to fan the fire.
Maccaroni Loper
Machine Boy A boy who operated a machine.
Machine Breaker English labourers who in the early 19th century revolted and broke threshing machines, spinning machines, and other forms of mechanisation.
Machine Girl A girl who operated a machine.
Machine Ruler or Machiner A machine operator
Machinist A machine operator
Macon A mason.
Macun A mason.
Maderer A person who gathered and sold garlic.
Maid A female domestic servant. They included Scullery, Kitchen, House, General, Parlour, Nurse, Laundry, Lady's etc.
Mail Guard An armed guard employed to protect the mail coach service.
Maise Maker A person who made measures for weighing herring catch.
Maker-Up A person who prepared or 'made up' material to customers clothing requirements, or chemist or druggist, or an agent for paraffin.
Malemaker A maker of "Males" or travelling bags. A Royal Mail term for the bags in which the letters were carried.
Malender A farmer
Maler See Malemaker.
Malster or Maltster A brewer, maker or seller of malt beverages; beer and ale.
Manager in charge of; any industry
Manageress in charge of; any industry.
Manageress do A woman in charge of; any industry.
Manchester Man A wholesale travelling salsman trading between factory and shops with goods on packhorses.
Manciple A steward
Mangle Keeper woman who offered use of a mangle for a fee
Mangle Worker or Mangler Someone who works a mangle
Mango A slave dealer.
Mantle Cutter Someone who cut mantles for gas lamps.
Mantle Finisher Someone who finished mantles for gas lamps.
Mantle Forewoman A highly skilled dressmaker.
Mantle Machinist Someone who machined mantles for gas lamps.
Mantle Maker Someone who made mantles for gas lamps.
Mantle Trimming Maker Someone who made the trimming for gas mantles
Mantua Maker A Dressmaker. Mantua is a woman's loose gown.
Manufacturer, Mechanic
Manufacturing chemist, labourer
Marble Mason
Marble Polisher, Mason
Marbler one who stained paper or other material, veined to imitate marble
Marescallus A marshall.
Marine Store Dealer A person who buys and sells used cordage, bunting, rags, timber, metal, etc, sorts waste, repairs and mends sacks.
Mariner A sailor, or seaman.
Mark Cutter
Market Carrier A porter.
Market Labourer A labourer in the market.
Market Porter A porter
Market Regulator Regulates trade in the market.
Market Salesman Sells item in a market.
Market Warehouseman A labourer.
Marshall A horse doctor or shoesmith. Alternative definition, a horse servant or groom.
Marshman Someone employed by landowners to look after marshlands and tend the animals put to graze there for the season.
Mashmaker Someone who makes the mash-vats or mashels used for mixing malt.
Marson A mason.
Mason A stone dresser or cutter.
Mason, or Paviour lays paving stones
Master The holder of one of three grades of skill recognised by the Guild of Crafts. A skilled workman or one in business on his own.
Master Baker A highly skilled baker.
Master Carman A cab driver who works for himself or employs others to drive.
Master Lumper A contractor of labourers at cheap rate of pay.
Master Mariner The Captain of a sea going vessel.
Master Tailor A highly skilled tailor
Match Box Maker Someone who makes matchboxes.
Match Maker Someone who makes matches.
Match Seller, Coster Someone who sells matches.
Matchbox Maker Someone who makes matchboxes.
Matchet or Machete Forger A knifemaker, or machetemaker; a heavy axe-like knife used as a chopping tool.
Matchgirl Sold matches on the street (Six for a fip)
Mather See Mawer.
Matron - Institute Head nurse in charge of a ward in an institution.
Mawer A mower.
Mayer A physician.
Mealman dealer in meal or flour
Meat Porter A person who carried meat from place to place in a meat market.
Mechanic A manual labourer, working in a trade, or the operator of a machine, or a person who uses machinery to produce things.
Medical Assistant Assistant to a Doctor.
Medicus A leech doctor.
Melder A corn miller.
Mercator A merchant
Mercer Someone who sells cloth, mainly silks and velvets. A Draper.
Merchant Someone who sells things
Messenger Someone who carries messages.
Metalman A worker in metal
Meterer A poet.
Met Policeman metropolitan police officer
Midwife experienced woman who assists in child birth
Milk Carrier Someone who carries milk.
Milk Dairyman Someone who keeps dairy cattle and produces milk.
Miller One who operated a mill; grain, cloth, timber etc.
Milleress A female miller, or the miller's wife
Milliner Someone who sells fancy wares and articles of apparel, or the maker of ladies hats, bonnets, etc.
Millner See Milliner.
Millow A miller.
Millpeck Someone who sharpens mill stones.
Millstone Inspector A vagrant, a gentleman of the road.
Millwright designer & builder of mills or mill machinery
Miner Someone who works in a mine, digging for coal, iron, lead, tin ore, etc.
Mintmaker, Mintmaster or Mintner One who issued local currency.
Mixer A barman or barwoman.
Mocado Weaver A weaver of woollen cloth called mock velvet, used for making clothes.
Molendinarius or Muner A miller.
Molitor A miller
Mondayman A person who worked for the landowner on Mondays in lieu of rent.
Monger A dealer or seller of goods (ale, fish)
Monthly Nurse someone who assisted women during the first month after giving birth
Moulder maker of molds or castings, brickmaker
Moulder Runner A pottery moulder's assistant.
Mountebank A seller of ineffectual patent medicines. A "Snake Oil Salesman".
Mouse Trap Maker
Mudlark A sewer cleaner or riverbank scavenger
Muffin Maker A baker who made muffins, or a pottery worker who made a specific type of plate called a muffin, a seven inch tea plate.
Muffin Man An itinerant seller of muffins.
Muggler See Pigman.
Mugseller Someone who sells mugs and cups.
Muleteer A mule driver.
Multurer A miller.
Musicker A musician.
Music Teacher
Musical Student
Musician, Music master Someone who made music.
Muslin manufacture Someone who made muslin.
Mustarder See Mustardman
Mustard Maker made and sold mustard.
Mustardman A dealer in mustard.
Nail manufacturer The owner of a nail making shop or factory.
Naperer A royal servant in charge of table linen.
Napier A person in charge of the table linen in a Manor House. See Naperer
Narrow Weaver A weaver of ribbons and tapes, etc.
Navigator A sailor in charge of navigating, a pilot, or a labourer who dug canals and later worked on the railways. The origin of navvy.
Navigor See Navigator.
Navvy labourer
Neatherd or Neatherder Herds cows
Necessary Woman A servant responsible for emptying and cleaning chamber pots
Necker Someone who fed cardboard into the machine that makes cardboard boxes.
Nedder or Nedeller A needle maker.
Needle Pointer A filer or fettler in needlemaking, or a person engaged in the craft of needlepoint.
Needle Woman or Worker one who sews
Netter Someone who made nets.
Nettir A knitter.
News Vendor, Coster Someone who sold newspapers in the streets.
Newsagent Ashop that sold newspapers.
Nightman See Night Soilman.
Night Soilman one who emptied cesspits, ashpits and backyard toilets
Nightwalker A watchman or bellman.
Night Watchman A caretaker, or watchman.
Nimgimmer A doctor.
Nipper A lorry boy, or young person employed by the carter or wagoner to assist with the collection and delivery of goods.
Nob Thatcher A maker of wigs.
Noon Tender Someone who guarded goods on the quay while the customs officers or dockers were at lunch.
Notary Someone authorised to draw up or witness contracts, wills, deeds, or similar documents.
Noterer A Notary.
Nudel Sorter Someone who sorts Nudels.
Nudel Sorter, Apprentice An apprentice to a qualified Nudel Sorter.
Nurse Tended the sick.
Nurse Girl A trainee nurse.
Nurse, Dom A domestic nurse.
Nurse, Sick Nurse.
Nursemaid Nurses children
Nursery Boot Maker Made boots.
Occupier A tradesman.
Office Boy An office junior
Office Cleaner, Char Someone who cleans an office.
Oilman One who sold oil for lamps.
Olitor A kitchen gardener, from Olitory; a kitchen garden.
Omnibus Conductor Collects fares in an omnibus (bus).
Omnibus Driver Drives an omnibus.
Optician Someone who examines eyes and precribes glasses.
Orange Peeler Someone who peels oranges.
Orange Porter Someone who carries crates of oranges in a fruit market.
Orderly A soldier who acted as a servant for an officer.
Ordinary, or Ordinary Keeper An innkeeper with fixed prices
Orrery Maker Someone who made a mechanical device for showing the movements of the planets. Named after the inventor; the Earl of Orrery.
Orrice Weaver A weaver of lace patterns in silk thread and silk.
Osier or Withy Peeler Someone who removed bark from willow rods or osiers which were used in basket weaving
Osler A bird catcher.
Osnard An oxen herder.
Ostiary A monastery door keeper.
Ostler one who looks after horses; stableboy. See Hostler.
Ostrich Feather Dealer Someone who deals in ostrich feathers.
Out Crier An auctioneer.
Outrider An attendant riding a horse before or behind a carriage.
Outworker Someone who worked from home.
Overlooker A superintendent or overseer, especially in the textile mills. sometimes an hereditary position.
Overman A foreman in a mine who checked the miners work and the quality of the mined coal.
Owler sheep or wool smuggler
Oyster Dredger member of the crew on board an oyster fishing boat
Packer packs goods such as tobacco, pickles or herring
Packing Case Maker Someone who makes packing cases.
Packman A peddler, someone who travelled around carrying goods for sale in a pack.
Pack Thread Spinner The operator of the machine which made thread or twine.
Pad Maker A person who made small baskets used for measuring things.
Painter Someone who paints things.
Painter & Grainer Someone who paints and applies a grain to imitate a different type of wood.
Painter (Sign) Someone who paints signs.
Paintress A woman employed in the pottery industry to hand paint the finished articles.
Paling Man Someone who sells eels, or a fishmonger.
Palister A Park Keeper, someone who ensured the parks were safe and well kept.
Palmer A pilgrim, someone who had been, or pretended to have been, to the Holy Land
Paneler A saddler.
Pannarius A clothier or draper.
Pannebeter A pan-hammerer, or a clothdriver.
Pannier Man A fish monger
Pannifex A person who worked in the cloth trade.
Pansmith Someone who made pans; a metal worker.
Panter Keeper of the pantry.
Pantler A butler.
Papaya Man Someone who was involved in trade with Papua New Guinea.
Paper Bag Maker Made paper bags.
Paper Colorer Coloured paper.
Paper Cutter Someone who Cut paper.
Paper Dealer Someone who dealt in paper.
Paper Embosser Someone who embossed paper.
Paperer Someone employed in the needlemaking industry to insert the needles into the paper ready for sale.
Paper Hanger A decorator, one who hung wallpaper.
Paper Hanger, Plasterer An interior decorator who hung paper and plastered.
Paper Maker Someone who worked in the paper making industry. See Vatman, Coucher, Layer, Sizer.
Paper manufacture The owner of a paper making factory.
Paper Presser Someone who worked a paper pressing machine.
Paper Sorter Someone who sorted paper.
Paper Stainer A person who coloured paper by hand or machine.
Parcheminer Someone who makes parchment.
Pardoner Someone who is licensed to sell papal indulgences.
Pargeter Someone who applied ornamental plaster to buildings.
Paritor An officer who attended the magistrates and judges at court to execute their orders.
Parker A park caretaker, or type of game warden in a hunting or game park.
Parochus A pastor or rector.
Passage Keeper kept passages and alleys clean.
Passover Cake Baker
Pasteler A pastry chef.
Pastor A shepherd.
Pastry Cook A cook who bakes pastry.
Patler A groom.
Patten or Patton Maker A clog maker, one who made wooden soles or pattens, to fit under shoes to protect them from wet and muddy ground
Pattern Maker A maker of a clog shod with an iron ring. A clog was a wooden pole with a pattern cut into the end
Paver Someone who laid paving stones or paved roads. See Paviour
Paviour or Road Paver Someone who laid paving stones or paved roads.
Pavyler Someone who put up marquees, pavilions or tents etc.
Pawnbroker Someone who lent money with interest against an item of value, and who would later sell the item to recoup their investment unless the lender expressed the wish to buy it back themselves when funds were available.
Pedascule A school master.
Pedlar A street seller who bought and sold goods for cash.
Peeler A policeman, constable or bobby, named after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force.
Peever Someone who sold pepper.
Pelliparius or Peltarius A skinner, one who worked with animal skins.
Pelterer A skinner, one who worked with animal skins.
Perambulator A surveyor.
Pensioner Someone who draws a pension
Perchemear Someone who made parchment.
Peregrinator An itinerant worker or wanderer.
Perfumer Someone who makes or sells perfume.
Periwig Maker Someone who made wigs.
Peruke Maker Someone who made wigs.
Peruker Someone who made wigs.
Pessoner A fishmonger.
Peter Man A fisherman.
Pettifogger A shyster lawyer.
Petty Chapman A pedlar. or an itinerant dealer in small goods. See Chapman.
Pew Opener Someone who was paid to open the doors to private pews in a church.
Philosophical Instrument Maker A skilled craftsman who made scientific instruments.
Phrenologist Someone who claimed to be able to assess a person's character based on the bumps on their head.
Pianist Someone who played the piano.
Pianoforte Maker Someone who made piano's (pianoforte's).
Picker Someone who cast the shuttle on a loom.
Pickler Someone who pickled things, eggs, onions beetroot etc.
Pictor A painter.
Picture Dealer Someone who buys and sells pictures
Picture Frame Gilder Someone who gilds picture frames.
Picture Frame Maker Someone who makes picture frames.
Piece Broker A person who sold material off-cuts or remnants.
Piece Worker Someone who was paid for the number of pieces produced rather than by the hour. This applied to many industries. People who worked from home were usually pieceworkers.
Piece Master Someone who acted as a middleman between employer and employee, and who passed out the piecework.
Piecener See Piecer.
Piecer Someone who worked in a spinning mill, piecing together any threads which broke. Often a child.
Pigmaker Someone who made pig or cast iron, also a pottery worker.
Pigman A crockery dealer, or someone who bred or looked after pigs on the farm.
Pikelet Maker A baker who specialised in making pikelets; small pancakes or crumpets.
Pikeman A millers assistant, or someone who worked at the turnpike.
Piker A vagrant or tramp, someone with no fixed abode.
Pilcher Someone who made pilches.
Pill Box Bottomer Someone who made the bottoms of pill boxes in the pottery industry.
Pill Box Lidder Someone who made the lids of pill boxes in the pottery industry.
Piller A thief, or robber.
Pilot A ship steersman or navigator.
Pinder A dog catcher and pound keeper, or someone in charge of the pinfold.
Piner A labourer.
Pinner A pin maker.
Pinner Up A dressmakers assistant, or someone who sold broadsheets or ballads in the streets.
Pipe Case Maker Someone who made pipe cases.
Piper An innkeeper.
Pipe Maker Someone who made pipes.
Piscarius A fishmonger.
Piscator A fisherman.
Pistor A baker or miller.
Pit Brow Lass A female worker who worked at the pit head of a mine.
Pitman A coal miner
Plaicher A hedge layer.
Plain Worker Someone who performed plain sewing or needlework as opposed to an embroiderer.
Plaisterer A plasterer.
Plaiter Someone who made straw plaits used in making hats etc.
Planker Someone who planks, or kneads the body of the hat during felting.
Plantifene A hay and forage merchant. See Avernator.
Plasher A hedge layer.
Plasterer Someone who plasters walls and ceilings, or someone who worked with roman cement used in stuccoing.
Plaster Ship Maker
Platcher A hedge layer.
Platelayer laid and maintained railway tracks.
Playderer Someone who made plaid.
Pleacher A hedge layer.
Plomer A plumber.
Plowman farmer
Plowwright or Ploughwright maker or repairer of plows
Plumassier Someone who made or sold plumes, or ornamental feathers.
Plumber Someone who worked with lead, for gas and water pipes etc. One who applied sheet lead for roofing and set lead frames for plain or stained glass windows
Plumber & Gas Fitter one who worked with lead piping for gas fittings
Plumbum Worker plumber; literally, worker in lead
Plumer See Plumassier.
Pocket Book Maker Someone who made pocket books.
Podiatrist Another name for a chiropodist.
Pointer Someone who sharpened needles or pins, etc.
Pointmaker Someone who made the tips of laces.
Pointman Someone who made the tips of laces.
Pointsman A person who operated the points to change the railway track on which a train was travelling.
Poldave Worker Someone who made poldave, a coarse fabric.
Pole Lathe Turner A skilled craftsman in wood.
Poleman A surveyor's assistant.
Polentier A poulterer.
Police Sergeant A police officer who had achieved the rank of Sergeant.
Policeman, Railway A person employed by the railway as a policeman to guard the railway assets.
Poller A barber, or men's hairdresser.
Ponderator An inspector of weights and measures.
Pony Driver Someone, often a child, in charge of the pit pony which pulled the coal tubs underground.
Porcher A pig keeper.
Pork Butcher A butcher who specialised in Pork meat.
Portable Soup Maker Someone who converted soup into a dry form for transporting from place to place.
Porter door or gatekeeper, or one who carried things
Porter on Railway A porter who worked for the railways.
Portmanteau Maker Someone who made leather trunks for clothes, etc., which opened into two equal parts.
Post Boy Someone who carried mail from town to town. A guard who travelled on the mail coach. An outrider who travelled with the stagecoach as a postillion.
Poster Someone who worked in the quarries breaking rocks.
Postillion Someone who attached extra horses to wagons & coaches to help pull them up hills, or one who worked on long distance coaches and who's duty it was to change the horses at the stops.
Postman someone who carried letters for the Post Office.
Pot Boy or Man worked in public houses collecting and washing dirty pots and glasses
Pot Burner Someone who placed pots in a furnace to be fired.
Potato Badger Someone who sold potatoes.
Potato Salesman Someone who sold potatoes.
Potter Someone who made or sold pottery.
Potter Carrier A pharmacist or chemist.
Potter Presser A potter who used a mould.
Potter Thrower A potter who used a wheel had to "throw" the clay onto the spinning wheel.
Potman & Barman worked in public houses collecting and washing dirty pots and glasses and serving drinks
Pouch Maker Someone who made pouches or purses.
Poulter or Poulterer A buyer and seller of poultry.
Power Loom Tuner Someone who maintained the loom in a weaving mill.
Powler A barber, or men's hairdresser.
Poynter Someone who makes lace.
Practical Brewer Someone who brews ale or beer.
Preceptress A school mistress.
Prentis Another name for an apprentice
Presser Someone who presses, clothes for example.
Pressmaker Someone who makes presses.
Prick Louise A tailor.
Pricker A pattern maker, or a horseman, or a witch hunter.
Prig Napper A horse thief.
Printer Someone who works at or owns a printing press
Printer's Apprentice Someone who is training to be a printer.
Printer's Boy An assistant to a printer.
Printer's Compositor Someone who sets print type.
Printer's Cutter Someone who cuts paper that has been printed.
Printer's Devil A printer's assistant.
Printer's Factory Lad An assistant to a printer.
Printer's Foreman Someone in charge in a printing shop.
Printer's Labourer Someone who labours for a printer
Printer's Machine Boy An assistant to a printer.
Printing Mark Maker
Proctor An official of a university.
Proffensor of Swing
Prop Bobby Someone who worked in mines checking the pit props.
Protestant Dissenting minister
Prothonary A law clerk.
Provision Curer Someone who cures meat.
Provision Dealer Someone who supplies provisions.
Provision Warehouseman Someone who works in a provisions warehouse.
Publican innkeeper, one who runs a public house, usually licensed
Puddler Someone who worked clay into puddle, or one who worked with puddle to make things watertight e.g. canal walls, or one who worked with puddling iron or wrought iron.
Puggard A thief or robber.
Pugger Someone employed by brick manufacturers to produce clay paste by treading like grapes, often women and children.
Pugilist A prize fighter.
Puller Down
Pulley Maker Someone who made pulleys.
Pump Maker Someone who made mechanical pumps.
Punky A chimney sweep.
Pupil Teacher A schoolteacher.
Pure Gatherer or Picker Someone who roamed the streets, especially in London, gathering dog faeces, often an old woman or child. These were used in the tanning industry for processing hides.
Purser A ship's officer in charge of provisions & accounts
Purveyor of Horse Flesh Someone who sold horse meat.
Putter Someone who worked in the coal mine hauling the mine tubs.
Putter In Someone who was employed to put things in to some type of mechanised process.
Pynner A pin maker.
Quarantine Officers of customs and quarantine, they were responsible for ensuring that anyone arriving on a vessel with a foul bill (i.e. coming from a country where plague existed), did not come ashore until they had spent a period of quarantine to make sure that symptoms of plague did not develop. This practice started in England with an act of parliament in 1710, although the origins of the word quarantine dates from 1377 in Dubrovnik. The last vestige of the British quarantine law was removed by the Public Health Act of 1896, which repealed the Quarantine Act of 1825.
Quarrel Picker A glazier
Quarrier A quarry worker
Quarry Man or Quarryman A stone cutter
Quay Clerk A clerk who worked at a quay or wharf.
Quiller Someone who operated a machine that wound yarn onto spools.
Quilter Someone who quilted material.
Quiltress A female who quilted material.
Quister Someone who bleached things.
Qwylwryghte A wheelwright.
Rack Maiden Someone employed in the tin mines of Corwall to dress the ore, often a girl.
Raff Merchant Someone who sold fibre used to make raffia bags etc.
Raffman Someone who dealt in raff (saleable rubbish).
Rag and Bone Man went from street to street with a cart and collected any old rubbish
Rag Cutter cut up rags into small pieces to be used for making paper etc
Rag Gatherer cleared the rags from the machinery in the mills; often children
Rag Man one who went from street to street collecting and selling old clothes and rags
Rag Merchant Someone who bought and sold rags.
Rag Picker Someone who sorted through the left over rags to find reusable ones.
Rag Sorter
Railway Clerk
Railway Engine Driver, Stoker
Railway Labourer
Railway officer, clerk
Railway Station Master
Railway Porter
Railway Servant Port
Railway Shunter Someone who shunts carriages and wagons in a railway yard.
Raker A street sanitation worker.
Ratoner A rat catcher.
Rattlewatch A town watchman.
Redar Someone who interprets dreams.
Redsmith A goldsmith.
Reeder someone who worked with reeds for hedging or thatching.
Reedmaker Someone who made the pipe for a musical instrument, or a person who made a weavers implement (a reed) or reed cloth or the comb used in tapestry.
Reeler Someone employed to operate the machine that wound the yarn onto the bobbin.
Reeve A royal or manor official, appointed by the lord or elected by the peasants. A church warden.
Reever A shriever.
Refuge Attendant SA A refuge attendant with the Salvation Army
Regd Shoeing Smith registered shoeing smith
Registrar An official who registers events such as land purchases or births, marriages or deaths.
Relieving Officer An official who took charge of poor or insane persons not otherwise cared for.
Renovator Someone who repaired clothing.
Rent Collector A landlord or someone who works for them who collects rent from tenants.
Rescue Worker Someone who rescues people in trouble.
Restaurant Keeper A proprietor or owner of a restaurant.
Restaurant Proprietor A manager or owner of a restaurant.
Revenuer A taxman who enforces tax laws on liquor.
Ribbon manufacturer Someone who makes ribbons.
Rickmaster A horse Captain.
Riddler A wool stapler.
Riftere A reaper.
Rigger hoist tackle worker; works on a ship's rigging
Ripper or Rippier sold fresh water fish at the markets or maker and seller of baskets
Riverman Someone who works on a river boat.
Rivetter Someone who rivets, i.e. metal plates on a ship.
Road labourer Someone who repairs roads
Road Sweeper Someone who sweeps the streets.
Rockgetter A salt miner (rock salt).
Rockman Someone who worked in a quarry, often the one who placed the charges on the rockface.
Rodman A surveyor's assistant. See Poleman.
Roll Turner A carder of wool, cotton etc into rolls prior to spinning.
Roll Coverer Someone who covered the rollers for the spinning process.
Rolleyway Man Someone who maintained the underground road in the mines.
Roman Cementer Someone who worked with roman cement used in stuccoing.
Rope Maker Someone who makes rope.
Roper maker of rope or nets
Rotarius A wheelwright.
Rough Packing Case Maker Someone who made rough packing cases.
Rover An archer, or the operator of a machine used in the cotton mills, which prepared the carded fibre into rolls.
Rower Someone who builds small wagon wheels.
Rubbisher Someone who sorted the small stones in the quarries.
Rubbler Someone who sorted the small stones in the quarries.
Rugman A dealer in rugs and carpets.
Rule Maker, tape Someone who made tape rules.
Runner One who solicited business for a hotel, steamship, etc
Runner A smuggler, or a messenger or one who worked for the magistrate; Bow St Runners
Rustler A cattle thief.
Sack Maker Someone who made sacks.
Saddler or Harness Maker One who makes, repairs or sells saddles or other furnishings for horses
Saddle Tree Maker Someone who made the frames for saddles that the saddler used.
Safernman A grower of saffron.
Sagger Maker someone who made the fireclay containers in which the stoneware was placed ready for firing.
Sail Mantle Maker A sailmaker.
Sailor Someone who worked on a ship at sea.
Salesman Someone who sold things.
Saleswoman A woman who sold things.
Saloonist A saloon keeper.
Salt Boiler Someone who obtained salt by boiling water.
Salter Someone who made or dealt in salt.
Samitere or Samite Someone who makes a kind of heavy silk.
Sand Boiler
Sandesman A messenger or ambassador.
Sandwichman Someone who wears a sandwich billboard for advertising.
Sanitas Packer
Sarcinet Weaver A silk weaver.
Saucer Someone who made or dealt in salt.
Sauntere Someone who made or dealt in salt.
Sausere A salter.
Savant A servant.
Sawbones A surgeon or physician.
Saw Maker Someone who made saws.
Sawdust Dealer Someone who bought and sold sawdust.
Sawyer carpenter, one who saws timber to boards
Say Weaver Someone who made Say, a material used for table cloths or bedding.
Scaffolder Someone who erected scaffolding for building work.
Scabbler Someone who uses a scabbler (pick) to trim the sides of a tunnel.
Scagiola Maker Someone who made imitation marble.
Scaleraker or Scavenger employed by the parish to clean the streets
Scappler Someone who roughly shaped the stone prior to being finished by the stonemason.
Scavelman employed to keep the waterways and ditches clear
School Master A schoolteacher.
School Mistress A schoolteacher.
School Teacher A schoolteacher.
Schrimpschonger An artisan who carves in bone, ivory, or wood.
Schumacker A shoemaker.
Scotch Draper Someone who sold goods door to door with payment to be made by instalments.
Scotchman Someone who sold goods door to door with payment to be made by instalments.
Screener Someone who screened the ore at the mines surface.
Scribbler Someone employed in a scribbling mill where the wool was roughly carded before spinning, or a minor or worthless author.
Scribe clerk
Scriber Someone who worked at the docks marking the cotton bales with the approximate weight ready for selling by the brokers.
Scribler A minor or worthless author
Scrimer A fencing master.
Scripture Reader Someone employed by the clergy to go from house to house reading parts of the bible to try and encourage people to attend church.
Scrivener Professional or public copyist or writer; notary public
Scrutineer An election judge
Scullery Maid female servant who performed all the menial tasks
Scullion male servant who performed all the menial tasks
Scutcher Someone who beat the flax to soften the straw.
Sculptor Someone who made sculptures.
Seal Mantle Maker Someone who made gas mantles.
Seal Presser Someone who worked in the glass industry.
Seaman A sailor.
Seamstress Someone who sewed seams.
Searcher A customs officer.
Seedsman A dealer of seeds, or a sower of seeds
Seed Warehousewoman A seed warehouse worker.
Seedwoman, Cook
Seinter A girdle maker.
Seler or Sellarius A saddler.
Self Acting Minder Someone in charge of the automatic spinning mule in a mill.
Seller of Cats Meat Someone who sold cats meat.
Semi Lorer Someone who made leather thongs.
Sempster A seamstress.
Sempstress A seamstress.
Seneschal A senior steward at the Manor.
Servant, General, Domestic A domestic servant.
Serviens A sergeant.
Servus A servant.
Sevier A sieve maker.
Sewer A tailor or shoemaker.
Sewer Hunter A scavenger who concentrated on the sewers looking for valuable objects.
Sewer Rat bricklayer who specialised in making and repairing sewers and tunnels
Sewer, Shirt Someone who sews shirts.
Sewing Clerk The collector of piecework clothing.
Sewster seamstress
Sewsward of Boots A man who sewed boots.
Sexton employee or officer of a church who cared and upkept church property
Shagreen Case Maker Someone who worked with shagreen leather.
Shanty Man A lumber man.
Sharecropper A tenant farmer who would be paid with part of the crop.
Sharman Someone who raised the surface of wollen cloth and then sheared it to a smooth surface; cutter of woolen cloth.
Shearer Someone who cut the fleece from sheep.
Sheargrinder Someone who sharpened shears, scissors, etc.
Shearman Someone who sheared cloth or metal, or skilled worker who sheared the nap from cloth.
Sheath Maker Someone who made scabbards for swords.
Sheepman A sheep herder.
Shepster A sheep shearer or a dressmaker.
Sherman Someone who raised the surface of wollen cloth and then sheared it to a smooth surface; cutter of woolen cloth.
Shether See Vaginarius.
Shingler A roof tiler who used wooden tiles; shingles.
Ship Engineer The engineer on a ship.
Ship Husband repairer of ships while in harbour
Ship Master owner or captain of a ship
Ships Chandler grocer, provisioner, usually associated with provisioning ships
Shipwright constructor or repairer or ships; a shipbuilder.
Shirt Draper
Shirt Dresser
Shirt Maker
Shoe Black
Shoe Cutter
Shoe Finder Someone who sells shoe maker's tools.
Shoe Maker
Shoe Maker Finish
Shoe Manufacturer
Shoe Smith A cobbler, or someone who shoed horses.
Shoe Trimmer
Shoe Wiper A servant who polished shoes.
Shoeing Smith
Shoes Last
Shoesmith cobbler, one who shoed horses
Shop Assistant
Shop Boy
Shop Girl
Shop Keeper
Shot Firer Someone in charge of blasting in mines or quarries.
Shrager Someone who trimmed and pruned trees.
Shrieve A sheriff
Shrievet A sheriff
Shuffler A yardman on a farm.
Shunter one who moved rolling stock around the railway yards
Shuttle Maker Someone who made the shuttles for the weaving mills.
Sick Nurse
Sickleman A reaper.
Sidesman Someone who assisted the churchwarden.
Sifker A sieve maker.
Sign Painter or Writer Someone who paints or writes signs.
Silk Dresser Someone who prepared the silk for weaving.
Silk Dyer Someone who dyed silk.
Silk Engine Turner Someone who turned the wheel on the automatic silk weaving looms.
Silker Someone who sewed the ends of the fabric to prevent the layers from separating.
Silk manufacturer The owner of a silk making factory
Silk Mercer Someone who sold silk cloth and items made from silk.
Silk Thrower or Throwster Someone who twisted silk into thread or yarn.
Silk Twister Someone who spins silk.
Silk Veloct Weaver
Silk Weaver Someone who wove silk.
Silk Weaveress A woman who wove silk.
Silk Winder Someone who wound silk.
Silversmith Someone who worked with silver.
Sinker Someone skilled who contracted to sink new shafts for coal mining.
Sissor A tailor.
Sizer Someone who applies size to textiles.
Skepper Someone who made or sold wicker or straw beehives.
Skin Dresser Someone who dresses animal skins.
Skin Dresser, Fur Someone who dresses animal fur.
Skinker A tapster in an alehouse.
Skinner A dealer in hides, or a mule driver.
Skipmaker Someone who made the skips used in mining and quarrying for moving men or materials to the surface.
Skipper master of a ship
Slaper or Slapper Someone who worked in a pottery preparing the clay for the potter.
Slater or Slatter A roofer or roof tiler who used slate tiles.
Slaymaker Someone who makes reeds or slays; instruments to part threads in weaving, for looms.
Slipper Binder
Slipper Maker
Slipper Maker Assistant
Slipper Sewer
Slopseller or Slop Seller Seller of ready-made clothes in a slop shop or a seller of baskets.
Slubber Someone who operated the machine used to prepare cotton for spinning.
Slubber Doffer Someone who removed the bobbins from the spindles in a mill.
Smallware Maker Someone who made smallware e.g. tapes, braids etc.
Smelter Someone who works in a metal smelter, or smelt fishermen.
Smiddy A smith.
Smith A metal worker
Smugsmith A smuggler.
Snobscat or Snob One who repaired shoes, a cobbler.
Snow Warden Someone who kept the snow flat
Snuffer Maker Someone who made candle snuffers.
Soap Boiler A soap maker.
Soap Licker (Boiler) A soap maker.
Sojourner Someone who was staying somewhere temporarily, i.e. just passing through.
Sojourner Clothier A travelling salesman in clothing.
Soldier Served in the army.
Sole Cutter (Boot) Someone who cut the soles for shoes and boots.
Solicitor A lawyer, a person qualified to carry out legal duties.
Soper A soap maker.
Sorter Tailor
Sortor Tailor
Souter A shoemaker.
Soyor A sawyer.
Spallier Someone who worked in a tin works performing the menial tasks.
Sperviter Someone who keeps sparrows.
Spicer Someone who deals in spices, a grocer.
Spinner Someone who spins yarn or fabric.
Spinster A woman who spins or an unmarried woman.
Spittleman A hospital attendant.
Splitter Someone who operated a splitting machine or a person who split things by hand e.g. stone, timber etc.
Splint Cutter Someone who cut splints.
Splint Setter Someone who set splints.
Spooner Someone who made spoons.
Spragger Someone who inserts a piece of wood (sprag) between the wheels of a lorry (truck) to bring it to a standstill.
Spurrer Someone who made spurs
Spurrier Someone who made spurs
Squarewright A cabinet maker.
Squire Country gentleman; farm owner; justice of peace; knight's attendant. Esquire
Stable Foreman Someone in charge of stables.
Stableman A groom.
Stabler An ostler
Stainer Someone who coloured glass or wood.
Stall Keeper Keeper of a market stall.
Stallman Keeper of a market stall.
Stamper Someone who operated a stamping machine.
Stampman Someone who operates an ore crushing machine.
Stasyon or Stawsun A stationer.
Stationary Engine Driver Someone who operated a steam engine which was used for pumping water or sewage, etc.
Stationary Engineer Someone who looks after machinery such as pumping engines or lifts/hoists.
Stationary Engine Stoker Someone who stoked a stationary engine.
Stationer A bookseller, seller of paper & writing implements.
Stationery Leade
Statist A politician.
Stay Maker, Dress A corset maker.
Steersman A ship's helmsman.
Stenterer Someone who operated the cloth finishing machine.
Step Boy Someone employed to help passengers to enter or leave the coach.
Stevedore labourer who unloads and loads ships' cargoes
Sticher Someone who does decorative stitching.
Stick Dresser Someone who dresses walking sticks.
Stick Finisher Someone who finishes walking sticks.
Stick Maker or Stickmaker Someone who made walking sticks.
Stick Manufacturer The owner of a walking stick making factory.
Stick Polisher Someone who polished walking sticks.
Stitcher Someone who does decorative stitching.
Stock & Share Broker Someone who dealt in stocks and shares.
Stockinger Someone who made stockings.
Stoker Someone who stoked the fire of a boiler.
Stokiner A weaver of stockings.
Stone Dresser Someone who dressed stone.
Stoneman A surveyor of highways.
Stone Mason A skilled craftsman who cut stone.
Stone Picker Someone employed to remove the stones from the farmers fields before planting.
Stone quarrier Someone who worked in a stone quarry
Stonewarden A surveyor of highways.
Stone Workers Someone who worked with stone e.g. masons, quarries etc.
Store Dresser Someone who dressed a shop window.
Stove Blocker
Stowyer Someone who stowed the nets away on fishing boats.
Stravaiger A vagrant.
Straw hat and bonnet maker Someone who made straw hats and bonnets.
Straw Joiner Someone who thatched roofs.
Straw Plaiter Someone who made straw braids for the hat industry.
Straw-plait manufacturer someone who owned a straw plait making factory.
Streaker Someone who prepared the body for burial.
Street Minstrel, Actor A busker basically.
Street Orderly A street cleaner.
Street Singer (Actor) A busker basically.
Street Sweeper Swept the streets.
Stretcher Someone who stretched fabrics in the textile trade, sometimes called a tenter.
Striker A blacksmith's assistant. Also in whaling, the one who harpooned the whale.
Stringer Someone who made the strings for bows.
String Seller, Rope Someone who sold string and rope.
Stripper Someone employed in the woollen trade to remove the rubbish from the carding machines.
Stripper in Tobacco Factory Stripped tobacco leaves.
Stuff gown or Stuffed Gown. Junior barrister. Stuff Gowsman is probably a misspelling
Stuff gownsman Junior barrister
Stuff Weaver Someone who wove stuff, the coarse part of flax.
Sucksmith Someone who made ploughshares.
Sugar Boiler Someone who boiled sugar.
Sugarer A sugar dealer.
Sugar Finer Someone who refined sugar.
Sugar Grocer Someone who sold sugar.
Sumner A summoner or apparitor.
Sumpter A porter.
Superintendant or Super A boss, someone in charge.
Supercargo Officer on merchant ship who is in charge of cargo and the commercial concerns of the ship
Surface Man Someone who worked at the surface of a mine.
Surgeon Gen Pract: Regd G.P. - a doctor
Surgeon, apothecary Someone who was qualified to carry out surgical operations.
Sutler A peddler or merchant in an army camp, one who supplies them with provisions.
Swailer A corn miller; a miller or a dealer in grain.
Sweep A chimney sweep
Sweeper Out Someone employed in the mills, and other industries, to keep the floor clean.
Sweet Stuff Vendor A confectioner, or a sweet shop.
Swell Maker Someone who made shallow baskets.
Swineyard or Swineherder Someone who keeps pigs.
Sword Cutler A sword maker.
Tabernarius A taverner, or innkeeper.
Table Maker Someone who made tables.
Tabler A boarding house proprietor.
Tackler An overlooker of power loom weavers.
Tailor Someone who made or repaired clothes.
Tailor & Clothier Someone who made or repaired clothes.
Tailor Coat Hand A tailor's assistant.
Tailor Hand A tailor's assistant.
Tailoress A female tailor
Tailor's Apprentice Someone learning the tailor's trade.
Tailor's Assistant A tailor's assistant.
Tailor's Cutter A tailor's assistant - cuts cloth.
Tailor's Labourer A tailor's assistant.
Tailor's Machiner A tailor's assistant - machines cloth.
Tailor's Machinist A tailor's assistant - machines cloth.
Tailor's Presser A tailor's assistant - presses cloth.
Taker Off or Taker In Someone, often a child, employed to unhitch the coal tubs from the endless rope system.
Tallow Chandler Someone who made or sold candles
Tally Clerk Someone who kept count of goods arriving or departing from warehouses, docks etc.
Tallyman or Tally Fellow Someone who sold goods that were paid for in instalments.
Tan Bark Stripper Someone who collected the bark that was used in the tanning process.
Tannator A tanner.
Tanner One who tans (cures) animal hides into leather
Taper A candlewick maker or seller.
Taper Weaver Someone who made the wicks for candles.
Tapicer or Tapiter Someone who wove worsted cloth.
Tapley One who puts the tap in an ale cask
Tapster Someone employed to serve the beer in public houses, a barman.
Tarpaulin Maker Someone who made tarpaulins.
Tarrier Someone in charge of a pack of terriers used for hunting.
Tasker A reaper or thresher.
Tasseler Someone who made tassels used in furnishings. Also a nobleman.
Taverner An inn keeper.
Tawer Someone who made white leather.
Tawyer Someone who made white leather.
Tea Cooper tea chests were fastened with metal bands.  Any container fastened with metal bands was considered a cooper's trade
Tea Packer Someone who packs tea into boxes.
Teacher someone who teaches.
Teacher, School someone who teaches.
Teamer or Teamer man Someone in charge of a team of horses.
Teamster Someone in charge of a team of horses.
Teemer Someone who emptied grain from the cart, or someone who poured the molten steel into the moulds.
Teinter A dyer.
Telegraph Messenger Someone who delivers messages sent by telegraph.
Telegraphist & Clerk Someone who sends and receives telegraph messages.
Tenter Someone who stretched the cloth on a machine whilst it was drying, or who looked after and maintained the machine used in the process. Also a term for someone who looked after something e.g. a door tenter or pony tenter in the mining industry.
Terrier Someone in charge of a pack of terriers used for hunting.
Textor A weaver.
Thacker A roof thatcher.
Thatcher roofer, one who covered roofs with straw or reeds.
Thirdborough An under, or deputy constable. Also a tithing man.
Thresher Someone who separated the grain from the husks and straw.
Throwster Someone in the textile trade who twisted the strands of fibre together into yarn.
Ticket Writer Someone who writes tickets.
Tickney Man or Woman Someone who sold earthenware from town to town.
Tide Gauger Someone who monitored the state of the tide.
Tide Surveyor Someone who monitored the state of the tide.
Tide waiter Customs inspector
Tidesman A customs officer who checked the goods being unloaded from ships to ascertain the amount of duty due.
Tiemaker or Tie Maker someone who made wooden railway ties.
Tiger A small groom or pageboy in livery.
Tiler Someone who lays tiles on roofs or floors.
Tiller A farmer.
Tillman A ploughman.
Tiltmaker Someone who made canvas awnings or canopies.
Timber Dealer Someone who dealt in timber.
Timber Porter Someone who carried or moved timber.
Timekeeper Someone responsible for making sure things happened on time e.g. worker arriving or departing, trains, coaches, buses, etc.
Times Ironer Someone responsible for ironing the daily newspaper.
Tinctor A dyer.
Tinker An itinerant tin pot and pan seller and repairman
Tinman a tinsmith or tinker
Tin miner Someone who mined tin ore.
Tinner Someone who worked in the tin mines or a tinsmith.
Tin Plate Worker Someone who worked with tin plate.
Tinsmith or Tin Smith Someone who worked with tin.
Tinter or Teinter An artist who performs tinting.
Tipper Someone who put the metal tips on arrows, etc.
Tippler Someone who ran an alehouse.
Tipstaff A policeman or court official.
Tirewoman A milliner, a hairdresser, or a female dresser, often in the theatre.
Tixtor A weaver.
Tobacco Spinner maker of cigars
Tobacconist shop selling tobacco products
Todd or Todhunter Someone employed by the parish to hunt foxes.
Toe Rag worked at the docks as a corn porter
Toilinet Manufacturer Someone who made toilinet (a kind of quilting).
Toller Someone who collected tolls.
Tollgate Keeper Someone who worked at the toll gate to collect fees for the use of the road.
Tollie See Tollgate Keeper
Tollman Someone who collected tolls.
Tonsor A barber, or men's hairdresser. (Latin)
Tool Helver Someone who made tool handles.
Topman A sailor who works in the ship's rigging.
Top Sawyer The upper man in a saw pit.
Topsman The head cattle drover.
Touch Holer Someone who worked in the gun manufacturing industry.
Tow Card Maker Someone who made tow cards, used in the textile industry.
Town Chamberlain Someone who looked after the towns affairs.
Town Crier one who made public announcments in the streets
Town Husband Someone employed by the parish to collect money from the fathers of illegitimate children for their upkeep.
Townswaiter A customs official.
Toy Maker Someone who made toys.
Toyman or Toy Dealer Someone who sold children's toys.
Tozer Someone who worked in the wool mills employed to tose or tease the cloth.
A shopkeeper or a skilled craftsman.
Trammer A young person who worked in the mines.
Trampler A lawyer.
Tranqueter Someone who made hoops.
Tranter A peddler
Trapper A young person employed in the mines to open and shut the doors for the miners.
Traveller A travelling salesman.
Travelling Bag Maker Someone who made travelling bags.
Travelling Glazier Someone who replaced broken windows.
Travers Toll bridge collector
Treen Maker Someone who made domestic articles from wood.
Treenail Maker someone who made the long wooden pins used in shipbuilding.
Trenchermaker Someone who made wooden boards or platters for serving food from or cutting and slicing food on.
Trencherman A cook.
Trepanger one who used a circular saw to cut timber
Trimmer trims a ship by re-arranging its cargo
Trimmer in Braid Someone who sews braid onto the edges of clothing.
Trimmer Up
Trimming Head
Trimming Maker someone who made trimming.
Trimming Seller Someone who sold trimming.
Tripper A dancer.
Troacher A peddler.
Trolley Carter Someone who operated the tubs in the mines.
Troner A weighing official at the markets.
Trouchman An interpreter.
Trousers Finisher Someone who finished trousers.
Trover A smuggler.
Truchman An interpreter.
Truck Lad
Trugger Someone who made long shallow baskets.
Trunk Maker Someone who made trunks.
Trusser Someone who bundled and tied hay.
Tubber made tubs and barrels ie a cooper
Tubedrawer Someone who made tubes.
Tubman Someone who worked in the mines filling the tubs, or a court official, or an English barrister.
Tucker Cleaner of cloth goods
Tucker In A maid who attended the bedroom and "tucked in the bedclothes".
Tunist Someone who tuned musical instruments.
Turned Sulky
Turner a person who turns wood on a lathe into spindles, or a gymnast, particularly street performers or beggars.
Turning Boy Someone who assisted the weaver by turning the bar on the loom.
Turnkey prison warder or jail keeper
Turnpike Keeper See Tollgate Keeper.
Turnspit Someone who operated the spit handle.
Tweenie or Tweeny A maid who worked "between the stairs" she assisted the cooks and the housemaids.
Twister or Twisterer Someone who operated the machine used for twisting yarns and threads together.
Twist Hand Someone who operated a lace machine.
Ulnager examined the quality of woollen goods to be sold
Umbrella Cutter
Umbrella Frame Maker
Umbrella Maker
Unfortunate prostitute
Upholder An upholsterer, or someone who made quilts or mattresses. Also a cheapjack and seller of secondhand goods. Also someone who assisted an auctioneer.
Upholsterer's Tunner
Upholsteress A female upholsterer.
Upright Worker A chimney sweep.
Vaginarius A sheather, or scabbard maker.
Valet male servant that attended a nobleman or gentleman.
Valuator Someone who assessed the value of objects.
Van Boy
Van Guard A guard on a train.
Van Inspector
Varnisher (Furniture) Someone who applied varnish to furniture.
Vassal Servant of the lowest order
Vatman Someone employed in the paper making industry to put the paper pulp into the moulds. Also someone who worked with vats in a brewery.
Vegetable Salesman Someone who sold vegetables.
Vellum Binder Someone who bound vellum.
Vellum Sewer Someone who sewed vellum.
Venator A huntsman.
Vendor of Sweets Someone who sold sweets, a confectioner.
Venur A huntsman.
Verderer An official in charge of the royal forest, they are the watchdogs of the Forest landscape.
Verge Maker Someone who made the spindles used in clocks and watches.
Verger one who worked with the priest in the running the church
Verrier A glazier.
Vestment Maker Someone who made the gowns worn by priests.
Veterinery Surgeon
Victualler or Victualer A tavern keeper, or one who provides an army, navy, or ship with food supplies. A seller of food and drink.
Viewer one who worked at the mines in a managerial capacity
Villein Someone who paid dues to the lord of the manor in return for use of the land.
Vintager grape farmer, wine maker
Vintner wine merchant
Virginal Player Someone who played a musical instrument similar to a harpsichord.
Visitor of Sick A volunteer who visits sick people to cheer them up.
Vulcan Blacksmith
Wabster A weaver.
Waggoner Someone who drove a wagon, a carrier.
Wagoner wagon or cart driver
Wailer Someone employed in the mines to remove the impurities from the coal.
Wainwright A builder or repairer of wagons
Waistcoat Maker
Waiter Customs officer or tide waiter; one who waited on the tide to collect duty on goods brought in
Waiter, Inn Someone who waited on tables at an inn.
Waitman A night watchman.
Waitress, Inn A female who waited on tables at an inn.
Wakeman A night watchman.
Walker A cloth worker who cleaned and thickened the cloth by wetting it then walking over it.
Walking Stick Dresser someone who dressed walking sticks.
Walking Stick Maker Someone who made walking sticks.
Waller someone who built walls either with bricks or dry stone, also someone who worked making coarse salt.
Wantcatcher Someone employed to catch moles.
Wanter A mole catcher
Warder Someone in charge of prisoners.
Wardrobe Dealer Someone who dealt in wardrobes.
Wardrobe Shop Keeper Keeper of a shop which sold wardrobes.
Wards Maid Hospital
Warehouse Boy An assistant in a warehouse.
Warehouse Lad An assistant in a warehouse.
Warehouse Man Someone in charge of or employee in a warehouse.
Warehouse Porter An employee in a warehouse.
Warper Someone who set the warp thread on the looms, also someone employed to move boats by hauling on the warps (the ropes attached to the boats).
Warrener Someone in charge of a portion of land used for breeding rabbits and other small game.
Washman A tin coater.
Wasteman Someone employed in the mines to check the old workings for gas and maintain them in good order. A person employed to remove waste.
Waste Paper Dealer Someone who dealt in waste paper.
Watch & Clock Maker Someone who makes watches and clocks.
Watch Finisher assembled watches and clocks
Watchman A town official who guarded the streets at night.
Water Bailiff official in charge of the fishing rights on a stretch of water
Water Carrier Someone who carried and sold fresh water
Water Cress Woman A woman who grew and sold water cress.
Water Gilder Someone who trapped water fowl.
Water Leader, Leder or Loder Someone who transported and sold fresh drinking water.
Waterman someone who worked with or on boats usually on rivers.
Waterproof Cab Maker Someone who waterproofed cabs.
Waterproof Garment Maker Someone who made waterproof clothing.
Waterside Labourer A dock labourer who worked on the ships in harbour.
Wattle Hurdle Maker Someone who made a type of fence from wattle to keep the sheep in.
Waulkmiller See Walker.
Waver A weaver
Way Maker employed to make roads
Way Man surveyor of roads
Weatherspy An astrologer
Weaver Someone who weaves.
Webber A weaver.
Webster A weaver operating weaving looms (originally a female weaver).
Weeder Someone employed to remove the weeds from the gardens of the rich.
Weigher Someone employed on the docks to weigh the cargo as it was unloaded.
Wellmaster Someone in charge of the local well with the responsibility of ensuring clean water for the village.
Well Sinker Someone who dug wells.
Well Wright Someone who made the winding equipment used to raise the bucket in the well.
Wet Glover Someone who made leather gloves.
Wet Nurse woman employed to suckle the child of another (common practice with the rich)
Wetter Someone employed to dampen paper during the printing process. Also someone in the glass industry who detached the glass by wetting.
Whacker A horse or oxen team driver.
Wharfanger The owner of a wharf.
Wharfinger The owner of a wharf, or one who is in charge.
Wharf Labourer A labourer who works on a wharf.
Wheeler wheel maker, attended to the spinning wheel in the textile industry
Wheelwright maker or repairer of wagon wheels, carriages
Wheeryman Someone in charge of a wheery, a small light rowing boat.
Whig A horse driver.
Whipcord Maker Someone who made whips.
Whipmaker Someone who made whips.
Whipperin Someone who managed the hounds in a hunt.
Whitcher Someone who makes chests.
Whit Cooper Someone who made barrels etc from tin.
Whitear Someone who cleaned hides.
White Limer Someone who plastered walls using lime and water plaster.
Whitener Someone who bleached cloth.
Whitening Moulder
Whitening Roll Maker Someone who made the whitening used in whitening walls of cottages.
Whitesmith Tinsmith; worker of iron who finishes or polishes the work
Whitester Someone who bleached cloth.
Whitewing A street sweeper.
Whitster Someone who bleached cloth.
Whittawer Someone who made saddles and harnesses. Also someone who prepared white leather.
Wholesale Butcher A butcher who supplied other shops rather than the general public.
Wholesale Oilman Someone who supplied oil to oil dealers.
Willeyer Someone who throws handfulls of wool or hair, hemp or flax tow, etc., on to the feed apparatus of a willeying machine. A textile process.
Willow Plaiter or Weaver Someone who made baskets, etc.
Winder Someone who transferred the yarn from bobbins onto cheeses or into balls ready for weaving. Also, in the mines someone who operated the pulley or winch.
Window Cleaner Someone who cleaned windows.
Windster A silk winder.
Wine and spirit merchant A dealer in wine and spirits.
Wire Drawer Someone who made wire from metal by drawing the metal through various size holes in a template.
Wire Frame Maker
Wire Worker Someone who works with wire.
Wonkey-Scoop A driver who operates a one horse scoop.
Wood Box Maker Someone who makes wooden boxes.
Woodbreaker Someone who made wooden water casks.
Wood Carver Someone who carves in wood.
Wood Chopper Someone who chops wood.
Wood Cutter Someone who cuts wood.
Woodranger Someone in charge of the forest or woods.
Woodreeve Someone in charge of the forest or woods.
Wood Sawyer Someone who saws wood.
Wood Tier
Wood, Timber Merchant Someone who dealt in wood.
Wood Turner Someone who turns wood on a lathe.
Woodward Someone in charge of the forest or woods.
Woodworker Someone who works with wood.
Wool Comber Someone employed in the woollen mills to operate the machines that separate the fibres ready for spinning.
Wool Driver Someone who brought the wool to market.
Wool Factor wool merchants agent.
Wool Grower A sheep farmer.
Wool Knitter Someone who knits wool.
Wool Labourer A general labourer who works in the woollen industry.
Wool Man Someone who sorted the wool into different grades.
Wool Sorter or Woolsorter Someone who sorted the wool into different grades.
Wool Stapler Someone who sorted the wool into different grades.
Woolsted Man A seller of woollen cloth; from worsted man.
Wool Winder Someone who made up balls of wool for selling.
Woolen or Woollen Billy Piecer Someone employed in the woollen mills to piece together the broken yarns.
Woollen cloth manufacture The owner of a woollen cloth factory.
Working Builder A builder.
Working in Fur Someone who works with fur.
Works in Soap Factory Someone who works in a soap factory.
Worsted Manufacturer Someone who made worsted cloth.
Worsted Shearman Someone who made worsted cloth.
Worsted Winder Someone who winds wool.
Wright A skilled workman; builder or repairer, many different trades.
Writer Someone who writes, a scribe or a clerk.
Wyrtha A labourer.
Xylographer Someone who used and made wooden blocks used in printing illustrations.
Yard Labourer Someone who works in a yard.
Yardman Rail road yard worker, or a farm worker.
Yatman A gate keeper.
Yearman Someone contracted to work for a year.
Yeoman A farmer who owns his own land; a freeholder, the next class down from gentry, or an assistant to an official, or a ships officer in charge of stores.
Zincographer designer who etched in relief a pattern on zinc plates used for printing
Zinc Worker Someone who worked with zinc.
Zitherist A player of a simple, flat many-stringed instrument.
Zoetrope Maker A craftsman who made zoetropes, an optical toy in the form of a cylinder with a series of pictures painted on the inner surface which gave the impression of continuous motion when viewed through slits in the rotating cylinder.
Zoographer one who classifies species of animals